Tuesday, September 18, 2012

Heresy Wars Timeline. Cathar Wars. Religion as Pretext for Turf and Power. Again.



Institutional Roman Christianity Against All Others.
Economic and Religious Interests Commingled.

Targets: Any Ideological Dissenters and Rivals.
 
1. Gnostics, 2. Cathars (Abigensians) and Bogomils, 3.  "Heretics",  4. Balkan and other Northern European "Heathens"; and 5. Balkan-Russian Christians baptized Orthodox, not Roman.  

Land, lordships, bishoprics and profit: in the Name of the Lord
 
Explore a deadly legacy of western religious extremism  
..
 I.  CHRONOLOGY
TIMELINE OF HERESY ISSUES, LEADING TO THE WESTERN ANTI-CATHAR CRUSADES
 
Chronology of The Western Crusade
The Albigensian Crusade Chronology
The Crusade against the Cathars
.
Heresies Before and After
The Northern Crusades, by Eric Christiansen 1997
Framework starts with information, Cathar Country, and expands.

Dates:  1145-1255, by longest estimate.
See Cistercians, Heresy and Crusade in Occitania.
Formal crusade dates:  1209-1255.
See The Cathars: What Was the Albigensian Crusade
.
FIRST MILLENNIUM BACKGROUND, MINDSETS
0-1000 CE
Little heretical activity - Arians, Manicheans
.
1-299  FIRST CENTURIES
The influence of Rome in setting ritual.  Mithraism. See topics overview, adopted by Paul's institutional view of Christianit [Tarsus, his home, was a focal point of Mithraism] http://www.vexen.co.uk/religion/mithraism.html; counterarguments at http://www.truthaccordingtoscripture.com/documents/apologetics/Mithraism.php, but that is an agenda-group.  Prefer http://www.edwardjayne.com/christology/mithra.html; and as to hierarchies, grades of initiation, male etc., see http://www.farvardyn.com/mithras7.php

The influence of Rome in military approach to governance.  Retaliation.

"Revenge was a favorite tactic in Roman foreign policy." National Geographic September 2012 at 122, Roman Frontiers.  In the year 9 CE, Roman legions were defeated by Germanic tribes at Varusschlacht.  The response of Germanicus Caesar was to want not prisoners in following up later slaughters, but the "utter destruction of the nation" as the only acceptable conclusion of the war. See National Geographic site. Hadrian followed suit in 132 CE, against Jews in revolt in Judaea, name later changed to Syriua-Palaestina to disguise the place, killing 500,000 give or take, or who died by starvation, disease, fire, and enslaving and expelling survivors. See National Geographic.  Brutality worked. People stayed in line better. Slaughter, genocide, tools of war. Pax Romana: brutality at work.

FOURTH CENTURY
300         Heresy, heresy.     Arian "heresy" . See http://www.ewtn.com/library/HOMELIBR/HERESY3.TXT.  This is a term paper-type discussion from 1994 of heresy issues, but is a Catholic site, not neutral in outcome, but reasonably balanced. Read anyway.

There were wide variations in interpretation of what the life of Jesus meant, should mean, and what should shape around it in the culture. Apparently the Roman Army supported Arianism, Arius as a Greek-speaker, and African (Alexandrian) clergyman. Arianism was also attractive to many high-ranking pagan families; against the newer Bishops; and the lower populace. The gist of Arianism:  deny the "full godhead" of Christ.  That was, and is, a live issue in the range of believers in general.  To the Roman Church, all heresies are founded on errors of doctrine, whether or not founded on the Founder's words and acts; and doctrine (as of the 19th century, "infallible", shall not be assailed. Is that so?
.
Constantine opposed the Arians, but note that his grip on Christianity seems to have been spurred by a vision of his own, not reasoning through a doctrine, and the instigator may well have been a meteor, not an inspired vision at all, see http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3013146.stm
.
A basic issue was dogma:  abstracts.  The Arian challenge to the idea of the Trinity, as laid out by the Church. Jesus was more than man, but less than God. Arian heresy did not die.  Isaac Newton became an Arian supporter in 1672, see http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Extras/Newton_Arian.html  The Nicenes destroyed the Arian books, mostly. All?
.
385           More heresy.  And none of these quite dead.   Manichean heresy. Council of Saragossa (Spain), see vast detail at http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft009nb09t&chunk.id=d0e675&toc.id=d0e649&brand=ucpress,  executes Bishop of Lusitania, named Priscillian. Read at page 33 of  the Conciliar Acta, at The Making of a Heretic by Virginia Burris, that women "who are of the Catholic faith and faithful" are to be separated from men and mixed groups, this in the 4th Century, citing, of course, Paul who was never with the Founder -- Paulianiam, not Christianity.  Find overview at http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Manichaeism.  Deep Aramaic roots.  Think of light, and think of darkness.  Two natures.  Light lives in peace. Darkness lives in conflict. There is no omnipotent deity, so the problem of evil is solved.  Both exist. Darkness attacked light, the contest continues, and ... and ....  Also think gnostics, apochryphal Christian works.  Much intertwined.  But the ones called heretic lost. 

Elements of Manicheanism, dualism, survive in Bogomils in the Balkans; and surface in the Cathars of France.
.
FIFTH CENTURY

SIXTH CENTURY
500        With the fall of Rome, Clovis and the Merovingians assume the heritage of the Roman Empire, military and theological.  Unknown South of France at 56.
.
Early Middle Ages:  Relative quiet. Church fosters "peace of God" -- nobles at war not to harm civilians, no private wars during Lent or autumn harvest, or Wednesday after sundown until Monday morning, civilians being peasant and merchant. Venerate Virgin Mary and saints. See Unknown South of France at 60
.
520                  Benedictine Monastic Order founded.  Unknown South at 60.
.
SEVENTH CENTURY
625-638          Pope Honorius (see 680-81) serves according to his views
.
680-81            Pope Honorius is excommunicated for "heresy" (what?).  The institutional Church veers to forced conversion, expulsion of dissenters.  See http://www.romancatholicism.org/honorius-heresy.htm
.
EIGHTH CENTURY
732                  Charles Martel, son of Pepin the Short, defeats the Saracens, Unknown South of France at 57.  See also http://www.authorama.com/famous-men-of-the-middle-ages-11.html
.
753                  Charles Martel, "Mayor of the Palace," prevails at Tours, against the Saracens. See Autorama, above; and Unknown South of France at 57.
.
780-782            Charlemagne: See  http://germanyroadways.blogspot.com/2011/02/sachsenhain-saxons-grove-charlemagnes.html.  Charlemagne follows the old Roman model and slaughters thousands of Saxon prisoners who did not convert; his heirs also failed to maintain the rule as it had been forced, see Unknown South of France at 57;  see http://germanyroadways.blogspot.com/2011/02/sachsenhain-saxons-grove-charlemagnes.html.  Soon all fell apart again.
.
In the era:  Keep Barbarians in their places.  Improved communications tie Bishops closer to parish priests, Unknown South of France at 60.  But see the countervailing influences:  the emergence of the Lombards, the Longobardi, a Germanic group that steadily moved south until reaching and dominating Italy itself, see  http://www.hyw.com/books/history/Langobar.htm. 
.
The popes were in trouble against them. What to do? Turn political and military.
.
A violent religion. Engage in 9 crusades, beginning 1096 and extending to 1272, see http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm; the knights and the devout already worked up about the Holy Land, leftovers launched the Cathar Crusade at home, and the Northern Crusades in Northern Europe.
.
NINTH CENTURY
TENTH CENTURY
910                    Cluniac Monastic Order founded.  Unknown South at 60.
.
987                    Hugh Capet crowned, first hereditary King of France, Unknown South of France FN 1 at 95. Beginning of the Capetian Dynasty, see South at 57.
.
In the era:  Extensive Pilgrimage routes, from France, largely focused on goals in Spain, the Way of St. James, see Unknown South of France at 58-59.
.
SECOND MILLENNIUM, Part A
1001-1500
Heretical activity suddenly expands 
.
ELEVENTH CENTURY.
1000-1050                Bogomils expand influence in Balkans, Bulgaria. See From Bogomil to Cathar, at http://bogomiltocathar.devhub.com/
.
.
1022                 Robert the Pious in Orleans burned 10 canons, church officials, on the pyre, claiming they were Manichean.  Were they? Need to check. Rise in application of established heresies like Manicheanism or Arianism to identifed enemies of the orthodox church
.
1022ff                Heretical movements appear widely:  Toulouse in the southwest, Champagne lands where a Cathar church was built near Mt. Aimee (members were called "publicans"), and Arras in the northwest (France); and Montefort (Milan, Italy).  Church calls Council of Orleans, conducts a trial (who was tried?)
.
1028-1080          Six Councils were held.  Called one "Berenger" suspected of heresy (was he called 6 times? not convicted?)
.
1050-1100
.
1054                    The Great Schism:  Roman branch of institutional Christianity separates from Orthodox Christendom, largely over issues of the primacy of the pope, see the Pope's excommunication of the Eastern Patriah (on what authority?) http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/faithfacts/2006/11/when_did_the_greek_orthodox_an.html; see also http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/articles/church_history/michael_theschism.htm
Pope Gregory:  initiates Gregorian reforms
.
1095                   First Holy Land Crusade, preached at Clermont.  Unknown South of France at 60 Need for focus, reason for being? See http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm
.
But this was a crusade for territory, not faith, see Go East Young Knight, by Peter Frankopan, NYT http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/opinion/sunday/the-true-story-of-the-first-crusade.html?scp=1&sq=go%20east%20young%20knight&st=cse.  A "complicated and very earthly" endeavor to defend the Byzantine empire, not the Holy Land. Alexios I of the Eastern Orthodox, Byzantine Christians. Turkish warlords had seized important areas and the Emperor asked for help, also offering to unite the Christian branches East and West, divided at the Great Schism 1054.  Pope Urban II responded. But the western troops refused to abide by the agreement for them to return precious relics and give back to Byzantium the lands they might acquire. Fraud! Typical? The west kept up its crusader states for some 200 years.
.
1098                 St. Benedict's Cistercians from Citeaux founded, Unknown South at 60
.      
Alexis I Commene, in Constantinople, persecutes Bogomils.  Bogomil heresy spreads to Europe.  Roman sect evangelists like Pierre de Buys, Henri de Lausanne and Arnaud de Brescia become Bogomil, defecting from the orthodoxy
.
Church creates places of asylum throughout the land in deserted or uncertain areas, which could become "villeneuves" or places to live with tax and franchise advantages. Gave foothold for economic development, see Cathar Country at 51.
.
1000-1300       Positive Age of faith developments.  The Romanesque Church, style, pilgrimage routes.
.
1000-1300       Positive Cathar developments at the same time:
.
Rough summary list
.
[summary:] economic prosperity, political experiment, shared power, women sharing in decision-making, serving as parfaits, religious and social tolerance, poetry and music fostered in culture, free farm proprietors in agriculture, which followed from the Roman era; broad ethnic mixture including Greeks, Jews, Saracens, and Syrians, fully involved in the culture and accepted, specialties including finance and trade.  A new upwardly mobile middle class could aspire to nobility, beginnings of popular self-government,  rights of women to property and inheritance were respected, tolerance of Jew and Moslem, and shelter to "heretics" such as Cathars. Written legal codes modeled on the Roman.  Troubadours exalted culture of love, short of the bed. Names:  Richard the Lion-Hearted, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Troubadour Arnaut Daniel, of Perigord, Bertrand de BOrn, Bernard of Ventadour, Guillem de Cabestaing
.Unknown South of France at 96-99.  What is not to like?
.
TWELFTH CENTURY
1115                  Bernard de Fontaine becomes abbot of Clairvaud.  Bernard de Clairvaud. Bernard de Clairvaux?
.
1119                  Council of Toulouse convicts and condemns Pierre de Buys of heresy
.
1135                  Pisa.  Henri de Lausanne condemned. He had preached in LeMans and then in Toulouse area.
.
1143-44             Cologne and Liege build pyres (burn anyone yet?)
.
1144                  Second Holy Land Crusade http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm
.
1145                  Bernard de Clairvaux writes Count of Toulouse to end the heretical preaching of Henri de Lausanne;  goes to Toulouse, claiming he and his followers are Arian. After a series of visits elsewhere, he goes to Verfeil, east of Toulouse. Bernard's biographer calls that "sedes Satanae," or seat of Satan. Bernard's opponents would not hear him, causing disturbances. Bernard hoped that God would wither Verfeil, a play on words for withering greenery. Cathar Country at 21.
.
1148                  Council of Reims excommunicates heretics, condemned Henri de Lausanne to life imprisonment
.
1150                 Cathar ideas
.
These sweep over Languedoc in a way to threaten Rome. No wonder.  Cathars seek transparency, their own slant on belief
.
[summary from paragraph at site]  make the Bible available to anyone in that person's language, vernacular, not just Latin.  Spiritual world of deity and nonincarnate son, vs  material world of Satan and flesh; but people need not be celibate.  No need for outward signs of an institution: no crucifix cross, no mass, no saints, no worship of Mary, just veneration, respect. Simple tables in places of worship, and the BIble, with prayers, sermons based on the gospel and confession:  Seek justice goodness, truth. Nonviolence. No lying, no taking of oaths. Parfaits live modestly, even in poverty. Hooded cloaks, cup and bowl, and Book. May be weavers, artisans. The rest, just try to live a good life. Believers, "credentes", looked forward to consolamentum to absolve them at death and place them in state of grace, awaiting a return to another life. One-third of parfaits and believers were women.  Notable women:  Eleanor of Aquitaine and Esclarmonde.

Unknown South of France at 104 -105
.
1152                  Toulouse adopts a common council idea, elected consuls or "capitols", to administer civil affairs, with advice from Count of Toulouse.  See the extent of the Toulouse estates at FN 2.
.
1157                  Another Council of Reims opposes Cathars, called there "piffres", or (in Latin) "textores" or weavers,
.
1163                  Cologne burns 5 heretics.  Eckbert of Schonau, at the Cathedral, wrote that the heretics identified themselves as Katharos,or "Pure Ones".  Thus, the enemy was named.
.
1163                  Council of Tours:  directed harsh treatment of Cathars, imprisonment and confiscation of possessions
.
1163                  (Same year) Hildegarde of Bingen has a premonition: "The princes and others are going to throw themselves at the heretics and will kill them like enraged wolves."  Cathar Country at 21.
.
1165                  Occitania, near Albi. A conference opposed Cathars, also known by then as Albigensians, with prominent Cathars present, Robert Trencavel and the Countess of Toulouse. The Bishop of Lodeve ended with this declaration:  "I consider that those who call themselves Good Men [the Cathars called themselves the Good Men] are heretics."


.
1167                  Cathar Council at Felix de Caraman, for organization purposes.  A Bogomil bishop, Nicetas, was present; and Marcus of the Lombards.  Area defined as Cathar:  "Bishoprics of Agenais, Toulouse, Albigeios, Carcasses." Cathar Country at 21.
 .        
1167                   Beziers. The Bitterois (Church loyalists) trapped Viscount Raymond Trencavel in the Church of the Magdalene and assassinated him, and also broke the teeth of the bishop who tried to protect him
.
1175                  The Vaudois.  Pierre Valdez was a merchant from Lyon. He took progressive steps:  had the gospels translated into the language of the people in Provencal, and then he sold his goods. He became an itinerant, and preached a return to religious purity. He became an evangelical of the poor, leading "The Poor of Lyon"
.
1179                   Council of Lateran excommunicated the Vaudois. See 1175.
.
1177                   Robert Trencavel, Cathar, holds Catholic Bishop of Albi prisoner while Raymond V writes to church authorities, for help, then ensue many intrigues, letters, reprisals, forced recantings, excommunications, persecutions 1179ff

1178                   Cistercian Henry of Marcy, Abbot of Clairvaux, fails in a military expedition in Languedoc, see http://www.catharcastles.info/lavaur.php?key=lavaur.  He later became Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, and he tried again. And failed. He also failed as a preacher, so focused on the military. 

1180-81              Cistercian Henry of Marcy, as Cardinal-Bishop, moves militarily against territories of Viscount Roger II Trencavel, Beziers.

[Another Cistercian Abbot, Arnaud Amaury, later the Papal Legate, conducted the later Albigensian Crusade.  See 1209] 
.
1181                     Henry of Marcy, with troops supplied by Raymond V of Toulouse, takes Lavaur [note in 1211, a second onslaught on Lavaur]
.
1183-84              Cathars were arrested in Arras, they were called "Blackguards" or "bougres" (origin on boogey-man?)
.
1184                  Council of Verona (again? apparently so) excommunicates the Cathars and the Vaudois, the Poor of Lyon.  See 1179.  Apparently they were not quite the same?
.
1187                 Third Holy Land Crusade.  http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm.  In Holy Land, Muslims take Jerusalem
.
1195                  In Spain, Muslims defeat Castilians at Alarcos
.
1198                  Pope Innocent III.  Now begin the systematic fights against Catharism. In Gerona (where?), Christian King Peter II condemned heretics to death in his kingdom
.
1199                  Pope signs Decree of Viterbe, authorizing dispossession of Languedoc heretics
..      
           
THIRTEENTH CENTURY.  
Church fostered development of "bastides" - like the 12th C villeneuves, to get revenues and control and rights, and better control the population. People were regrouped there. Charters set out customs, and royal agents would organize the settlement. [fast forward to death of Raymond VII and Cathar defeat: Toulouse became 36 bastides]  Cathar Country at 51.  Plantagenets also created some in Aquitane. Design: 8-sided, central square, streets like a chessboard. Not like a village.] Some Vaudois reconciled with the Church.  See 1179
.
1202                   Fourth Holy Land Crusade http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm
.
1204                   King of Aragon facilitated tolerant attitude to Cathars
.
1205                   Pope Innocent III sent St. Dominic (1170-1221) to Languedoc from Spain, to expose errors of the Cathars. He and his followers preached even more extreme poverty than the parfaits of the Cathars.
.
1206                   Council of Mirepoix. Six hundred Cathars demand defenses at Montsegur
.
Same year;  Roman officials decide to adopt positions of the Cathars, and renounce outward signs of wealth, have no retinues, live by begging, on foot. Ordinary people were satisfied with the change. A convent of nuns was established at Prouille, in Lauragais, Cathar area.
.
1207                  Relations deteriorate, Pope Innocent III and Raymond VI. Pope excommunicates Raymond VI.  Count of Toulouse sees danger, the Pope sends a legation to negotiate, they are killed. Pope innocent calls for Crusade against Cathars, believing them responsible (were they?).  Recall prophecy of Dominic: ""...where blessing has no value, the stick will be used...." Cathar Country at 23.
.
1207                   St. Dominic founds nunnery at Prouille, near Fanjeaux, trying for peaceful persuasion of the Cathars.  But for all his work, few Cathars defected to St. Dominic, Unknown South of France at 105. 
.
St. Dominic, quoted at Unknown South of France at 105-106
' "For many years I have exhorted you in vain, with gentleness, preaching , praying and weeping. But where blessing can accomplish nothing, blows may avail.  We shall rouse against you princes and prelates who, alas, will arm nations and kindgdoms against this land ... thus blows ill avail where blessings and gentleness have been powerless." '
St. Dominic. And so he said it all.  And so they did.
.
1208                 Assassination of Cistercian monk Pierre de Castelnau at Saint-Gilles, France; he had been a Papal Legate and "first inquisitor," see http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12079d.htm, sent to suppress the heresy of Cathars in Languedoc. He had had a disagreement with Raymond Count of Toulouse, Raymond refusing to act against the Cathars at the demand of the inquisitor and the Pope. Within a year, Raymond was excommunicated, and Castelnau the Inquisitor was beatified.



Pierre de Castelnau was the Cistercian Papal Legate sent to suppress the Cathars, Beatified 1209 est. Perpetrator: Raymond of Toulouse who refused to act against the Cathars?  This event triggered the official Crusade against all Cathars.

The Papal institutional applause for one sent to kill tolerant, hon-hierarchical, non-materialistic Christians, in order to gain their lands and force conversions, is appalling.  See the write-up for his nibs at http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12079d.htm.

 

1208                With the asssassination of Pierre de Castelnau, Pope Innocent III had the excuse he had sought to act against the Cathars.  He called for the Albigensian Crusade.   Abbot of Citeau, Arnaud-Amaury, raised the Crusader army. Philip Augustus:  would not participate, but authorized his underlings to join. Raymond VI increased diplomacy.  Trencavel would not organize a united front. Raymond finally had to give 7 fortresses as security to Rome, and apologize and swear to fight the heretics, and even put his land under the protection of the Pope. Who was Raymond?  Forget.  Others wanted the same, but were refused (Raymond-Roger Trencavel, and Viscount of Beziers and Carcassonne)
.
1209                  Occitania.  First pyres were made at Cassenil. Crusader groups organized.
.
1209                  Beziers inhabitants would not surrender.  Crusaders sacked Beziers. At Beziers, Papal Legate Cistercian Arnaud Amaury was asked according to many sources and stories how the attacking knights were to tell the heretics from the true Catholics. Amaury, said, it is said, "Kill them all. God will know his own." http://learnearnandreturn.wordpress.com/tag/albigensian-crusade/ ]


This Beziers Cathedral is one of the many constructed on the piles of churches of Cathars.  It knows not what it is.  It is a mishmash of styles, efforts, all too much, all to forced, all fail. As such attempts to hide history should, given the events. Built to dominate the skyline, as it does from the main approach, and intimidate any faint souls remaining sympathetic to those heretical non-hierarchy, get-along with neighbors Cathars, that is all it does. A big bully of tacked-together stone.

Beziers. A similar account. Crusaders arrive, order Cathars to be presented or whole town suffers their fate. Townspeople would not turn over the Cathars among them. Some townspeople tried to escape, Crusaders pursued, and then forced their way into the town,. Crusaders set fire to town, massacre nearly all townspeople and Cathars, total some 20,000 people, including 7,000 taking refuge in Church of the Magdalene. Famous shout of the abbot of Citeaux, Arnaud-Armaury, spiritual leader of the crusade, "Kill them all! God will recognize his own!" See Cathar Country at 25. Statement later reported by a Cistercian monk from Cologue, Cesaire de Heisterbach. See site. Fair use quote:
.
'And the terrible warnings of Guillaume de Tudele, the author of the song of the crusade against the Albigensians rang out: "Any castle which resists, any stubborn town shall be taken by force and reduced to a charnel-house. That no living being should be left, even new-born babies. Thus shall be sown healthy fear and no longer shall anyone dare to defy the Cross of God..." '
.
Cathar Country at 25. Find it at http://www.addictedtotravel.com/travel-guides/places-to-visit/cathar-country_france-travel-guide
.
1209                  Narbonne submitted.
.
1209                  Miramont Castle, Alaric Mountain. Chabert de Barbaira, protector of Cathars, probably also a heretic, but not sure. Warrior, successful against the French. This battle near town of Barbaira (was it named for him then or after?)  See 1218
.
1209                  Carcassonne.  Trencavel was there.  Crusaders took over water sources. Trencavel tried to negotiate, was captured. Died of dysentery or poisoned in prison?  Inhabitants of Carcassonne ran.  Serving in the Crusade was a 40-day commitment, nobody wanted to take over Trencavel's rule, but finally Simone de Montfort did. How to subdue the rest of the land with only 30 soldiers left. More sieges, burnings, and finally Montfort's wife, Alix de Monmorentcy led in reinforcements. 

Carcassonne falls. These were not mere passing military endeavors.  This was a large, walled city.
.
.
.
1209                   Puylaurens, village of Les Cassees. 60 Cathars burned on the pyre.
.
1209                   Les Cassees.  Sixty Catharss burned.   

1209                   Albi fell.

            
.
1210                   Bram. Revenge of Montfort. Mutilated 100 prisoners, eyes ripped out, nose ears and upper lips torn off, send them on foot, blind except for one who led, to fortresses of Cabaret.
.


1210                    Chateau Puivert falls.  See http://www.catharcastles.info/puivert.php?key=puivert
.
1210                    Franciscan mendicant order of Friars founded, Unknown South of France at 60.  Parallel of poverty to the Cathar "parfaits" who also lived modestly.
.
1210                    Minerve. Montfort wins, burns 140 Cathars.  More defeats.

1210-11                Lavaur.  Simon de Montfort attacks, takes Lavaur. 


Aimeric-de-Montreal, garrison head, was hanged, along with his knights. His sister, a widow known for her generosity, Dame Geraude, Geralda, Girauda, Chatelaine of Lavaur, was hurled down a well, and stones thrown on top. http://www.catharcastles.info/lavaur.php?key=lavaur. Four hundred Cathars were burned on a pyre at Lavaur. The castle is gone; a new church, later constructed in Gothic style, was erected at Lavaur. Numbers and details get specific. Eighty knights hung, 400 Cathars burned on the  pyre. "Lady Guiraude, the chatelaine of Lavaur, was thrown to the bottom of a well and buried under stones." Cathar Country at 30.  She was not just buried under stones, says Unknown South of France FN 1 at 18; she was cast down the well and stoned. See 1253.
.
1211                   Strasbourg. On the pyre:  burning of 80 Vaudois. Other Vaudois hid in the Alps, and the Luberon (what is that?). More Crusader campaigns.
.
1211                   Castelnaudary. Against Montfort's 500 men, assembled 5000 southern allies.  Some reinforcements arrived. Battle was abandoned, but the allied coalition appeared disjoint. Montfort regroups.
.
1211                   Toulouse. Montfort attacks.
.
1212                    Area,  Estates of the Count of Toulouse in 1212, see Unknown South of France FN 1 at 95-96.  Cathar Chateaux, Cathar Castles, and a broad indication of towns, are shown on the same maps.  See FN 4
.
1212-13              Sieges, back and forth, no clear winner. Cahuzac, Guillac, Rabastans, Montegut, Hautpoul, Saint-Marcel, Antonin Laguepie, Saint-Alliances, battles, Crusaders take Penne d'Agenais, Biron, Moissac, leaving only Toulouse and Montauban?
.
1213                   Muret. 20 miles from Toulouse. Montfort gathers crusaders from Carcassonne, seven bishops and three abbots. Bishops excommunicate Counts of Toulouse, Comminges and Foix (a mass celebrated at Saverdun) Then ally Peter II (who had succeeded in slowing down the papal fighting earlier) refused other clergy asking him to surrender.  Bishops bless the crusaders of Montfort and they divide into sections and branch out from Muret across Occitan lines [he later died in fighting. Occitans became disjoint. Situation deteriorates, people undone, run into the Garonne river, drown, some flee]
.
From the Canso (Song of the Albigensian Crusade), Anonymous speaks:
' "The sinister rumor of disaster is already spreading throughout the world." '
 Cathar Country at 33.
.
1214                   There had been treacheries among the nobles, and Raymond hung his own brother. Count of Foix and Count of Comminges submit.
.
1215                   Council of Lateran strips Raymond VI of rights, gives them to Montfort, but earlier anti-heretic actions were reaffirmed, more dispossessions, loss of citizenship, could not hold public office.  Then Montfort denounces any amnesty
.
1215                   Toulouse falls to the Crusaders
.
1216                   Resurgence of Cathar hopes, Simon de Montfort gets title back, siege of Lourdes castle,  more battles. But Toulouse revolts against him. Innocent III dies. On and on, alliances, marriages to seal alliances, sieges. Pledges ignored, abolish consulates, consultates continue.
.
1216                     Dominican monastic Order founded, see Unknown South of France at 60
.
In the era:  bishops and abbeys of institutional church also promote schools, hospitals, South at 60
.
1217                   Fifth Holy Land Crusade.  http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm
As to Cathars, Raymond enters Toulouse, gives protection
.
1218                  Simon Montfort siege of Toulouse. His brother, Guy, was killed by a crossbow operated by women on the ramparts, a mangonel, Then Amaury, son of Montfort (which?) became leader of the Crusade at age 20.  Chabert de Barbaira defends Toulouse, peerless warrior, see 1209. See 1219
.
1219                 Battle of Baziege.  Chabert de Barbaira fights with the future Raymond VII. See 1240
.
1219                 Marmande.  Montfort sacks and burns it and all in it.
.
From the Canso:
.' "And the earth, the ground and the river bank were crimson with the blood which ran over  them.  No man, woman, child, old man or creaature was left alive unless they were hidden.  The town was destroyed and the fire, alight." '
Cathar Country at 39.
.
1221                 Dominic dies
.
1224                 Carcassonne.  Armistice. People had been falling away. Son of the senior Trencavel (who died in Carcassonne jail in 1209) regained his lands, but agreed to hunt heretics. Other agreements, as with Raymond VII that he could keep his lands, were abrogated.  Confiscation. Dispossessed. He refused.
  .
1226                Enter a new Crusade, the Royal Crusade, led by Louis VIII. Avignon in the Midi area opposed, but solidarity was cracking. Surrender. Still, Cathars remained rooted in Languedoc, with sanctuary in Cabaret. New Cathar bishops created at new bishopric of Razes, Carcassonne and Toulouse area. Bishop: Benoit de Termes. But bishop of Carcassonne was captured and burned alive at Caunes, with king present.
.
1227                 Labecede.  All slaughtered, by sword and stake by royal army, Imbert de Beaujeu in charge. Treaties and repression and reprisals continue.
.
1228                 Sixth Holy Land Crusade.  See http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm   Cathar area:Toulouse. Again under siege.  Destroy the crops.
.
1229                 Raymond agrees to surrender
.
1229                 Toulouse.  French King "established University of Toulouse to assist the Dominicans in their heresy hunting."  Unknown South of France FN 1 at 118.
.
1229                Council of Toulouse.  Treaty of Meaux. Raymond VII gives up possession of all his lands in Languedoc and lower Provence. Promised to fight heresy. Got back some lands for that. Count of Toulouse suffered financial conditions preventing him raising an army.
.
During this era:
                      Cathedrals. Church builds Gothic Cathedrals in Languedoc "to cow the population" - size rivaling cathedrals already in Paris, Reims, Chartres.  Unknown South of France FN 1 at 118.
.
1230               Toulouse. Dominicans build Church of the Jacobins, near the central square, the Capitole. Used red brick, and high and flat columns in order to support the "rayonnant-Gothic style" so that the place looked like a fortress, very intimidating. See Unknown South of France FN 1 at 118. 
.
And the bones of St. Thomas Aquinas were brought there to be set up in a reliquary, no other connection, but to establish a pilgrim and pilgrim-donation destination. Psychological warfare.
.
1232                Capture of 19 parfaits, but Raymond still not trusted. Montsegur is made head of Cathar Church
.
1233                Raymond confirms anti-Cathar edict
.
1233                Pope Gregory IX commissioned the Inquisition to the "Preaching Brothers" - had been led by Bishops.  Hunt the heretics. Heretics flee to Peyrepertuse, Queribus, Montsegur
.
1234                Dominic is canonized.  See 1221 and 1215
.
1240                Trencavel returns from safety of Aragon, gets some land back at Carcasonne. Then came royal forces, and Peyrepertuse surrendered.
.
1240                Verdouble Gorge.  Chabert de Barbaira (see 1218) fights with Trencavel at Padern, property of Lagrasse Abbey there. Called "The Lion of Combat".
.
1241                 King wants Montsegur destroyed, as Raymond VII had promised. Raymond doesn't fight very hard, as he was working out his own coalition with certain nobles; and also Henry III of England who arrived in 1242
.
1242                Avignonet.  Commando force out of Montsegur assassinates inquisitor Guillaume Arnaud and 11 Dominicans and Franciscans.  Weapon: Axes. Leader:  Raymond d'Alfaro, son in law of Raymond VI.  Revolt spreads across Midi. Church excommunicates Raymond VII and his coalition falls. Surrender.
.
1243                 Montsegur, seen as the "head of the dragon." Five hundred people defended its heights. Battle 10 months.  Then a group of basques got up Tower Rock and cold install catapults.
.
1244                 Montsegur surrenders.  Cathars refuse to recant. 200 Cathars burn on the pyre. Any remaining go in hiding.

Montsegur falls.

 .
1248                   Seventh Holy Land Crusade.  See http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm
.
1249                  Agen. 80 Cathars burn on pyre.
.
1250-1300
.
1252                 Pope Innocent IV authorizes Inquisition to torture.  See Cathar Country at 45.          
.
1252                Albi.  Cathedral of St. Cecile ordered built by Bishop Bertrand. Towers over everything. Columns, towers, stone enclosures with elaborate stone carvings. Also:  construct the Palais (Palace) de la Berbie, where there are now 600 paintings by Albi native, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. 
.
1253                 Lavaur. Look back at 1210, the Cathar Lady Giraude had been cast down the well and stoned to death there by the Crusaders.  Now, in 1253, the Crusaders built St. Alain's Church near the spot. Unknown South of France FN 1 at 118.
.
1255-1271         More Cathar surrenders.

1270                  Eighth Holy Land Crusade http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm

1271                   Ninth Holy Land Crusade http://www.middle-ages.org.uk/crusades-timeline.htm
.
1272                  Narbonne.  St. Just.  Crusaders began a cathedral, built a choir 136 feet high, and a transept with 194 foot towers (rest of cathedral not finished).  "St Just was a fearsome reminder to the heretically inclined of the forces arrayed against them."  Unknown South of France FN 1 at 118.
.
1276                   Sirmione.  Capture of Cathars. Verona, Italy: 200 heretics were burned in the arena at Verona.
.
 .               
1280                 Twilight of the courtly age. Court of Count of Rodez: last troubadour there, Giret Riquier, reflected on the French conquerors forbidding "songs of vanity" -- Said Riquier, quoted at Unknown South of France FN 1 at 117,
.
' "Song should express joy, but sorrow oppresses me, and I have come into the world too late." '
.
1283                  Champagne. On the pyre: burning of 183 Cathars
.
1287                  Inquisition Trial at Albi, Inquisitors return to Carcassonne
.
1291                  Carcassonne opposes extremism of Inquisitors
.
1295                  Inquisitor Nicolas d'Abbeville begins again the trial, and people revolt. Leaders flee to a Franciscan monastery, where Bernard Delicieux was reader. Bernard refuses to let them in.
.
1297                  D'Abbeville seeks to try Castel Fabres, then dead, suspected of heresy; but Fabres had died in the monastery receiving Church rites, not Cathar; so the monastery defends Fabres.
.
FOURTEENTH CENTURY
1301                   Bernard Delicieux met with king and criticizes Inquisition abuses. Led movements against the Inquisition in Albi, Cordes, Carcassonne.
..
In the era:   The decline of the Age of Faith, 1000-1300 in the Midi, with its pilgrimage routes, economic successes, was generated by the disaster of the Church's response to the Cathar interpretation of Christianity in Languedoc:  Look at the confluence of factors --
"As numerous as the reasons for the rise of the Age of Faith are the causes of its later decline. ***[T]he failed Crusades, the holocaust against the Cathars, the dynastic wars, the Inquisition, the resentment engendered among impoverished peasants and workers by the wealth and ostentation of the clergy, the corruption evidenced by clerical bribe-taking and indulgence-selling, the rise of the French monarchy as the claimant for total allegiance, the divisions in the Papacy, all combined to bring an end to the High Middle Ages."
 Unknown South of France at 60-61.
.
1302                  Franciscan Bernard Delicieux in opposing papal policy of authorizing Inquisitors to torture, tries to get Languedoc into the hands of Ferrande, the Infante of Majorca. See Cathar Country at 45, 49. He was captured, some followers were hanged, and he was delivered to Pope Clement V and was subject to him.
.
1310                  Beziers. Delicieux goes to Beziers.
.
1317-1319        Jean XXII (king or pope??) arrested and tried Delicieux
.
1318-1325        Inquisition.  The Inquisition offered heretics who survived the holocaust, word used at Unknown South of France FN 1 at 117,  a chance to recant and escape burning at the stake. Prosecutors and scribes invaded and interrogations covered every aspect of their lives. Stenographic record is available, found by historian Emmanuel Le RoyLadurie in the Vatican Library, as to Inquisition lawyer activities in the Pyrenean hamlet called Montaillou: how deep was the heresy. He wrote a book, Montaillou, Cathars and Catholics in a French Village, see University of Cambridge review at the Faculty of History, http://www.historycambridge.com/default.asp?contentID=810.  There find extraordinary details of the lives and beliefs of villagers of the time, elicited as part of the questioning to determine the extent of the heresy. Not read yet, but understand this book is not an annals of torture book, although many were burned, others imprisoned, made to wear the "golden cross" of the heretic. More administrative? See Unknown South of France FN 1 at 117. Jacques Fournier, later Pope Benedict XIII (former Bishop of Paniers)
.
1320                  Castelnaudary.  Torture of Bernard Delicieux, sent to Mr Strict prison, dies there.
.
1320                  Spy-informer Arnaud Sicre sets plan in motion to betray last parfait, Belibaste.
.
Why? Sicre's family were heretics, and their lands had been confiscated.  Perhaps by colluding with the Inquisition, he could get back some of his lands, perhaps he thought, see Cathar Country at 45. He was the son of a lawyer, from Aix-Les-Thermes. Met with heretics at San Mateo and was received as a friend.He met Belibaste, the parfait. Left on a pretext, met with Bishop Jacques Fournier and denounced Belibaste. Word got to the Inquisition. Fournier paid Sicre, Sicre deceives Belibaste into coming with him.
.
1321                  Morella.  Last known parfait, Guillaume Belibaste, is captured.
.
1321                  Villerouge-Termenes.  Parfait Guillaume Belibaste is burned on the pyre.
.
1323                  Toulouse.  7 Troubadours form Consistori de la subregaya companhia del Gay Saber, and organize a poetry competition to honor Oc traditions. Religious themes, historical events, Western crusades of great interest, or daily life.  Jocs Florals.  See 1554.
.
During period:  Course of intimidation by construction continues.  Many new towns established by the Crown and Crusaders, as military outposts, not to show town planning advances.   See Unknown South of France FN 1 at 119.
.
1324                  Castelnaudary:  Arnaud  Vidal of Castelnaudary wins literary society competition, receiving a golden violet as prize.
  .           
1390                  Freissinieres.  On the pyre: burning of 127 Cathars
.
1393                  Barcelona. Jocs Florals were copied in the Pyrenees. Violante de Bar, Queen of Catalonia and Aragon; and wife of Joan I (what??) organized a poetry competition. Prize:  real flower, not a golden violet.
.           
FIFTEENTH CENTURY
1400-1450
Albert de Catana organized a Crusade against the Vaudois. The last of them hid in Dormilouse, "The Montsegur of the poor."  Then they were exterminated.        
.
1443                    Toulouse. Toulouse was given rights to have a parliament; but the judges derived power from the king, not from city electors.
.
' "So the land of Languedoc was lost.  Granted, the realities of geography might in any event ultimately have brought Languedoc into peaceful incorporation with France, without the blood and tears of the anti-Cathar crusade and the Inquisition. And how much better that would have been -- for Languedoc and for France!" '
Unknown South of France FN 1 at 119.  And for Europe. And the world, by example, is that so?
.
1451-1500
.
1487
Burgundy:           Growth of heresies, martyrdom of more heretics, at Vezelay, Nevers, Auxerre, La-Charite-Sur-Loire
.
Italy:                   Heretics in Italy were called "patarins".  Locations:  churches near Milan (Concorezzo), Lake Garda (Desenzano), Vicenza, Mantua, Florence, Spoleto
.
.
France:               Particular concentration in Languedoc, part of social fabric, flourished for reasons of culture, business orientation, crossroads of trade and ideas, and appealed to the nobles because there was no required tithe, noone begged them for money, the Cathar leaders led extremely modest lives, and the poor could identify with that aspect, see Cathar Country at p.19.  How many were believers, however/  Book says, as of Toulouse, only maybe 1 in 10. Not a majority. In the smaller village of Vanjeaux, however, almost everyone was Cathar.
.
Invention of Clemence Isaure, legendary lady, inspired sponsor, muse of poetic games. See 1323.  Cathar Country at 55.

SIXTEENTH CENTURY.

1534 - Henry VIII in England breaks from the Catholic Church, initiates Church of England, self as head.  Executes opposition as heretics, traitors. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/God-Government-and-Roger-Williams-Big-Idea.html.
.
1537                    King Francis I proclaims French as official language of all France.  Langue d'oc remained the "patois" of the South of France, spoken still by millions, see Unknown South of France FN 1 at 94. 
.
1553-1558 - After various side-lights, Mary, Queen of Scots, becomes Queen of England, restores Catholicism, see http://womenshistory.about.com/cs/tudor/p/p_mary_i_tudor.htm. She burned Protestants at the stake.
.
1550-1600 - Cathar religion and culture continue, quietly
.
1554                    Toulouse. Jocs Florals, or Floral Games.  Presentation of poetic works, old literary society tradition of Oc country.  See 1323. Winner: Ronsard. Got the golden eglantine. See 1694
.
1558 - Mary's sister, Elizabeth I becomes Queen of England, re-restores Protestantism, http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/eliz1.html, kills Catholics.
.
1604 - Mary's son, James, becomes King of England, maintains Protestantism but moves it toward Catholicism, commissions the King James version of the Bible to foster return to authority. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/God-Government-and-Roger-Williams-Big-Idea.html.  Espoused divine right of kings, opposed by Sir Edward Coke, jurist.
.
17th C
 1694                   Louis XIV creates Academie des Jeux Floreaux, see 1323. Language of troubadours was replaced, remained only a regional dialect.  See 1393
.     
18th C
researching
.
19th C
researching
.                                                              
THIRD MILLENNIUM
2001-Date
.
2011       Contemporary Cathars, see extensive website, historical overviews, heraldry, at Cathars and Cathar Beliefs in the Languedoc, at http://www.cathar.info/
.
........................................................................................................
.
II.  Discussion
.
A random file-cabinet, knowing noone these days reads more than bites.

Did the Founder really require uniformity of thought, on pain of death or "excommunication"? Or did the Founder seek that people hear, and lead a good life.  Heresy, the idea, demands a Procrustean Bed.  Chop, or stretch the individual, but make sure the individual fits the established Mold.Consider the influence and effectiveness of thought police, from earliest centuries to date.
  • See how it grew after the Great Schism of 1050. The Roman Branch thereafter employed a Procrustean Bed:  Fit the length of our dogma, said the Institutional Church, newly in search of territory and influence; or you will be stretched, or chopped, to fit.  Enter Crusades, to the East, in the Holy Land; and against other Christians, in the Balkans, the Bogomils; and in Western Europe, the Cathars. 
An age of "faith" of its sort, was going on at the same time as the slaughter of the Cathars,  in the Midi and other areas.  In some places, people simply bowed to or voluntarily agreed with the institutional Church without question, see 1000-1300 CE, see  The Unknown South of France, A History Buff's Guide, by Henry and Margaret Reuss, Harvard Common Press 1991, at pp.56 ff,  http://openlibrary.org/books/OL1886265M/The_unknown_south_of_France.  See FN 1, FN 3.
  • In other areas, the institutional Church was not only questioned, it was opposed.  Texts from earliest times supported various interpretations.
.
The church responded to this diversity of response by calling any disagreement with its dogma "Heretical".  It masked its thrust for power as a concern (cough, cough)  for the eternal souls of those who disagreed.  Is that the real concern?  Or was the church really interested in territory and influence.  Look at the history.  the church had just split from the rest of Christian orthodoxy:  it needed land, prestige, justification. So far, we believe that the idea of "heresy" was an excuse to get those things.  
.
Is this so: 
  • The Roman Church made a conscious decision after splitting off from the Orthodox, to force dogma and belief in the Languedoc area of France that followed an alternate theology  (imposing the "Procrustean Bed" of Greek and other mythology).  
  • The Institutional Church remains accountable for that choice to turn to violence, uniformity and death,  as the culture has never recovered.  The course, once set, became engrained.   FN 2.  FN 3
.
Merit of idea, or approximation to the Founder's teachings, were lost. Theological institutions in the West followed the Roman experience and expertise:  use might and military. Merit of idea, measured by connection to the Founder's intent, or to later institutional expansion needs, fell by the wayside.
  • Might and military overwhelm which idea may have merit, is that so.  
  • Shape minds by force is the idea, and once forcibly converted, the people will think aright.  Kill now, say sorry later. Power disguised as "true belief" carries a virulence that kills the best in its path. Survivors on both sides, scathed.  Irreversible extremes can result.
One that creates and rides a concept it calls heresy.With this timeline in mind, a mere microcosm geographically, see the Western Violence Timeline, and focus on Jews, etc.  See http://worldwar1worldwar2.blogspot.com/2010/11/westerm-ethnic-violence-timeline-put.html
.....................................................................................
Unattached FOOTNOTES

This footnote section is extensive, as the topics here are really the subject suitable for a full thesis in any number of fields. 
.
FN 1  HISTORY OF THE CATHARS
.
The Unknown South of France, A History Buff's Guide, by Henry and Margaret Reuss, at http://openlibrary.org/books/OL1886265M/The_unknown_south_of_France, puts the Cathars into a larger context of French history, and in manageable segments geographically and culturally:
.
400,000 BCE               Prehistory and the Pyrenees
35,000-7,000 BCE       Cave artistry, Dorgogne, Vezere, Cele Valleys
700 BCE - 51 BCE      Gallic stones in the Lot Valley
51 BCE-410 CE          Roman Gaul
.
1000-1300 CE             Age of Faith, Christian institutional form in The Midi section of France
.
1000-1100-1300 CE    Languedoc area: Troubadours and Cathars -- Christian non-institutional, therefore deemed "heretic" [We would call this the religious suppression era, as the Christian form of faith in the Midi and other areas overwhelmed Languedoc Cathar Christians].See summary after it was over, at p.121:
.
Characteristics: Cathar age: see page 121; and Unknown  South of France at 117
church and throne destroy Languedoc
.
social and religious tolerance
courtly culture
self-determination
decentralized politics
economic prosperity
govern by live-and-let-live governing
build churches
pilgrims wend
small and large courts sponsored music, poetry, troubadours
.
1152-1453 CE            Dynastic Wars. English Frenchmen fight French Frenchmen.
1122-1204                  Eleanor of Aquitaine ascends English throne.   Aquitaine area:  Wars for dominance, Englishmen from English royal line with blending into the French royal line(think marriages, conquests, dowries), French-speakers, on French soil fight Frenchmen
1453                            English withdraw from France, retaining channel islands
.
Characteristics: Dynastic Wars
destroy areas north of Languedoc: Perigord, Quercy, Augergne
build castles
build fortresses
fortify churches
build bridges, mills, new towns
destroy enemies buildings and structures
destroy fields, forests of countless peasants
suffer plague
suffer famine
disease and war depopulate countryside and town
.
1337-1453  Hundred Years' War (really part of the foregoing 300 years' warfaring)
.
Religious Wars:  End of the Dynastic Wars brought the Religious Wars
1550-1750
1453-1562 CE             Renaissance in the Midi (Turks take Constantinople, refugees stream into Western Europe, bringing many new ideas, approaches - the Renaissance was not a sudden combustion out of nowhere)
.
1550-1750 CE             Religious Wars
.
1562-1610 CE             Example:  Navarre area: Religious Wars, Reformation, Counter-Reformation
1610-1789 CE             Example:  Cevennes: Huguenot (Protestant group) persecution
1789-1945 CE             French Revolution to WWII.  Midi resists the homogenization forces

Wars of the French Revolution
Napoleonic Wars
Franco-Prussian War
World War I
World War II
.
1945-1991 CE              "Modern" era (book was published in 1991) 
.
Current:                        Issue of who is legitimate and how is not, still distract. Who is to say who else is heretic, and who is inspired, in any culture and religion is a culture.  Seethe concept of the Sedevacant -- the vacant seat, if a pope is not de rigeur for those entrenched, see  http://olrl.org/misc/sedevacant_md.shtml
.
Itineraries.  Find itineraries for the anti-Cathar Crusade suggested at Unknown South of France at pp.119-120.
 .......................................................................................................
.
FN 2.   Violence in the Institutional Church.

Violence in choosing to eradicate dissent.
.
There were economic advantages of a clear system imposed.  Monasteries, peasants (still worth nothing and bound to the land) able to improve their lot.
There were benefits to the institutional church after the Great Schism: no "regulation" --
Unknown South of France at 56ff. 
.
Years 1000-1300, at the same time as the holocaust for the Cathars:
.
Good deeds.
.
Overview of book:

The Church for centuries had bought and sold land, inherited from the faithful, good business practices.  The barbarians were worse. Turn to the Church.
.
After 1000, people did not fear the end of the world, just yet. Vast land areas came under cultivation. The monasteries even exceeded how the secular nobles worked their land.  Gold stars for economic progress to Montmajour and Silvacane monasteries, see Unknown South of France at 56.  See better plows, using ox teams. Three-field crop rotation even. Build little stone houses for pigeons and collect the droppings for fertilizer. Pigeon __it. Damn the gristmills. No, not perdition, but ponds to make the wheels go faster. Mills:  Marcihac on the Cele, Lot River; or go to Gascony and find Barbaste, on the Gelise River.  Windmills!  Find some apparently at Castelnaudary on the Canal du Midi (remember that Midi is a geographic area); or at a town called St. Chels, also on the Lot River; or at Castelnau.  That is south of Cahors.
.
More improvements:  laundries, open air.  Community ovens. Go to Collonges-La-Rouge on the Dordogne River, oar La Couvertourade in the Herault, see Unknown South of France at 57. But this was not the monasteries doing it.  Credit to Church 0.  Credit to serfs: 10.  They didn't care who owned the land.  They were stuck on it.
.
"All  this agricultural bustle was made possible by the serfs." 

Unknown South of France at 57.  And the surplus created by the serfs entered commerce, then came trading, and market fairs.  Still, on the secular side, there was not the organization of the Church -- 
.
Political heirs of the Roman structure, like Clovis and the Frankish Merovingians, once the barbarians were in the places, did that on their own.
.
In areas where people were passive and accepting of the power's imposed dogma, the results were indeed beneficial economically. Still, the serfs remained serfs.  In other areas, like the Midi, monasteries fostered economic advances,  productive economic and other contribution.  But that is no counterweight to the atrocity the church employed to overcome disssent.  
.
Shall Western Culture ever face the history persecution and murder that enabled the Church, and in the Languedoc, the newly energized French Crown, to eradicate the only culture that could have fostered coexistence.  Sharing power, negotiation to result, full participation of women, live and let live.
.
For the centuries of resulting mayhem as the Church chose Inquisitions and Crusades under the pretext of "saving souls,"  the Institutional Church remains accountable. It had the choice.  It chose murder, not the fostering of voluntary life choices. Which is closer to the Founder.
.
Can the Church excuse itself by saying that violence was a flaw of the era. No. Violence was not a matter of early times and people not knowing better. See how the rest of the Christian World, the Orthodox in the East of Europe and Near East, continued its mission, without crusades and witch-burnings and heresy holocausts; without Rome's determination to dominate. 
.
Who lost in the Great Schism?  Western Culture. Western Culture chose force and conformity; and never recovered. 
.
Are religious wars just another pretext for power, turf and politics as usual.  Is institutional spin so engrained that original meaning is intentionally lost, in rallying a population to atrocity.
..................................................................................
FN 3   Cathar Beliefs, Economics, Structure
.
A.  Cathar Beliefs.
.
Demonized as heretic.  Dualism.  Light and darkness. Matter is evil. The deity is not all-powerful against it. People do their best, but acknowledge the duality:  Some can be "parfaits" or perfects; the rest of us do our best to live a good life, and hope for consolamentum as the only sacrament,the one at the end of life, as our life rolls into other lives.  Rough summary.
.
Should that be a difficulty?
.
It is where a system of doctrine and strict identity is threatened by it. What if people challenge the Church's interpretation? Work, most marry, live a good life, share decision-making, follow baptism in services but no additional "sacraments".  The parfaits set the example and also work, women are also parfaits, share power, why is dualism so bad?
.
After 800-1000 years, who were they?  What was so bad about their dualistic thinking -- good and evil, etc.  Did the Church really just want their lands, prestige, wealth, since the Church had just broken from the Orthodox in 1050 or so, and was casting about for position.  Learn about them from their own site, at http://www.cathar.info/
.
B.  Economics.
.
There was an unusual resource of the area:  Agranat.  A blue dye powder, requiring meticulous harvesting, processing of woad wood.. Agranat. Cathar Country at 57. Synonymous with opulence in time (think wealthy colonial houses here?? deep blue walls?).  Read about the blue dress of the Cathar girl at a good summer novel, very short read, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/bookreviews/6588518/The-Winter-Ghosts-by-Kate-Mosse-review.htm.  There was also farmland, extensive towns and castles.  The location was strategic, the south of France. The Pyrenees.  They spoke their own language, had their own customs; and did not bow to Rome.
.
C.  Structure.
.
Nonauthoritarian.  Cathar parfaits.  Leaders.  "Perfects."  They lived what they taught, lived in the community.  Cathar parfaits did not marry, but everyone else did and that was fine.  Parfaits were required to work, like anyone else, see Cathar Country by Michele Aue, translated by Juliette Fraiche, Discover Series MSM "Le Pays Cathare" 1999 at 65. Weaving and cloth-making were common occupations of parfaits. Profession of weaving, and heresy, connection was perceived. Is Weaver's Cross from the Cathars? need a picture. (Was Paul also a weaver?)
.
There were also basketmakers, leatherworkers, medicine.  Women parfaits were cultured, many educated, and directed convent-type houses for shelter for Cathar women and girls. Church clergy did not work, except lowly monks. See also Esclarmonde de Foix b.1160, noblewoman, landowner, Cathar, had owned Montsegur Castle before she sold or gave all away for her mission, participated in discussions between Cathars and Church, to the dismay of the Church. Cathar Country at 69.  Find it at Michele Aue, Cathar Country http://www.amazon.com/Cathar-Country-Michele-Aue/dp/2911515765. No kickback, just a source.
.
For another good source for Cathar Culture and the wars, as well as other eras, is this inexplicably obscure The Unknown South of France, A History Buff's Guide, by Henry and Margaret Reuss, Harvard Common Press 1991, at http://openlibrary.org/books/OL1886265M/The_unknown_south_of_France. See FN 1
.
D.  Ethnic cleansing, western style
.
The Crusade idea, no matter which, is not concern for saving souls but of  ridding the power arena of obstacles to Rome, obstacles to -- as it developed -- power of the French monarchy.
.
It appears so. Put the Albigensian Crusade, the Western Crusade, the formal Crusade of the Church against fellow Christians in Europe (think town of Albi for one group of Cathars) in the context of ethnic cleansing -- see http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/48961/andrew-bell-fialkoff/a-brief-history-of-ethnic-cleansing.
.
Bring western culture's ethnic cleansing into the open for examination. The French monarchy, in league with the church brought the Languedoc into monarchy control with the burning of parfait Belibaste in 1321, but some traditions carried on for another 75 years or so, and even beyond. Cathar Country at 55. Occitan language and culture: not eradicated completely.
.
And there was no "heresy" was there? There was only an obstacle to the monolith:  the Church. And then in league with the emerging monarchy.  Who is to say that dualism is not as fine a way to lead a good life. Who is hurt?  Better, which makes more sense and enables people to live together.  Belief in dualism may be common sense, and in line with the concepts behind "lead us not into temptation," or "deliver us from evil," -- looks like dualism, is that so?  See http://bogomilia.blogspot.com/2009/07/cathars-albigensians-vet-so-called.html
.
E.  Sources.
.
Then vet the theories with a more comprehensive account. Get a perspective on History at The Unknown South of France.  Go to Cathar Country, by Michele Aue and translated into English by Juliette Freyche; a Discover publication, paperback nice glossy, MSM (France) 1999. See it at http://www.addictedtotravel.com/travel-guides/places-to-visit/cathar-country_france-travel-guide  A book originally in the language and place of the events often gives different accounts of history from that transposed to others. Set up a chronology of the Cathar Wars, for example, because their extent appears almost as a footnote in some Roman Christian annals, a guick note and let's move on here -- those were only heretics. Even pop magazines are taking an interest, see http://newdawnmagazine.com.au/Article/The_Church_s_War_on_the_Cathars.html
.
Find your way directly to the Song of the Cathar Wars, A History of the Albigensian Crusade, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6408/is_n1_v67/ai_n28708189/
.
F. Facts evolving.
.
Who:  Who were heretics, really? Heresy as we know it, a matter of ideas being damnable, not just action.  But when does "thought" become an excuse, a symbol of an obstacle that a monolithic power wants out of the way.  Doe one person have to care if another is damned? Heresy changed according to which institution needed the change.  There was no single Greek word for ideas of perdition.  There was only "hairesis" or choice of sect, within an inherited line of faith. One may choose a destructive sect, but it took institutional purposeful doctrine to turn a merely destructive choice sect into damnation, and enforcement powers against those who dabbled in it.  See How "Heresy" or Choice of Sect became Sectas Perditionis.
.
Scope:  This was no small matter.  Persons of wealth, education and standing were challenged for what they thought.  Find a chart of the main people at http://www.cathar.info/120510_timeline.htm   Names and lineage get confusing and no name should be lost.

So, as the institution of the Roman Church took hold, by force and exclusion of dissenters, choice of ideas was only acceptable if it was the Roman Church position.  That led to damnation for those who challenged Rome as a new idea, sectas perditionis;and soon came the authority for those in the Church to enforce death against those outside.  Evildoers, not worthy of life.
.
Among these were Gnostics who, quite reasonably,  found in texts a duality of good and evil.  Roman dogma said no, no duality thinking allowed, and so the battle began -- slowly, focused in the first Millennium, and slaughter in the first half of the second.  Each viewpoint, gnostic, Aryan, Manichean, whatever, had viable roots in texts and experience and interpretations. But only one developed the will to kill, and the doctrinal thinking that their killing was indeed in the name of the deity. No heretics.  Only obstacles to the monolith. Ethnic cleansing, religious cleansing, what difference, pray tell. See Ethnic Cleansing, Mass Violence
.
D.  Chronologies:  To be integrated, and combined at some point.  See
.
Here we look at a starting chronology of the Church's Crusade against those Cathars, to show the ruthlessness, the need to examine what happened in cleansing the earth - nearly - of this culture, this benign belief system that could have offered so much in how to coexist with dignity, using the talents of all.
.
How else to examine the culture:  a sharing of power and an emerging solidarity in the "castellum" or fortified town, its noblemen, craftsmen, peasants, and religious parfaits who lived modestly and worked among them, seeking purity. See Cathar Country at 16.
.
Find instead the material and regimentation goals of the Crusader force their way for territory and wealth, organized officially and extending over a long period against other Christians in France, Spain, elsewhere.  What model was followed in exterminating a religious culture that we continue to see in political as well as religious ethnic cleansing.  Gnostics, Cathars, Bogomils, Manicheans, you name the sect that differed from the Roman sect, and find them denominated "heretic."  Another topic would be the role of "heresy" in other faiths.
.
E. Linguistic resources. The Literature and Feeling of the Languedoc
.
Cathar country:  Then see what is lost when a language is nearly exterminated.  What concepts of mind almost cease to be -- we could use some of their paratge today.  See this anchor reference, http://www.cathar.info/  Read The Song of the Albigensian Crusade at http://medievalsourcesbibliography.org/sources/-806118968
.
Languedoc, France; where the language "Oc" or Occitan,was spoken. Language of the Ocs.  Languedoc. Consider the entire southwest of France, extending as far north as Normandy. And related beliefs in the Balkans, the Near East.  Gnostic.  Semantics.  Not just that; the battle was also for a mindset:  coexistence, cooperation, consideration; against autocracy.  Against rules, definitions, Patriarchy.
.
Languedoc before the Albigensian Crusade:  courtly love, troubadours, rhythmic verses. Troubadours included Peire Vidal, Raimon de Miraval.  Parallels if not connection: search for purity, for Cathars in religion, for troubadours, in feeling. From love comes good, both would say. See Cathar Country at 55.
.
F.  Questioning visions.
.
How much of a faith is grounded in one person's claim of "vision" -- unverifiable, but pivotal to history.  A concept in process, examples include looking at Paul (epilepsy?) (do a search for Paul and the idea of heresy, for a start on how ideas are shaped by "inspired" individuals, at what expense); and Constantine (meteor? see 4th C. above)
....................................................................................................
FN 4   Towns and Cathar Castles 12th C.
.
For an idea of the wealth and broad area involved, here is a list of towns (size? criteria for inclusion?)  in 1212, precise proportions of Cathar to Church believers not given on that map, but Toulouse (source?) may have had some 10% Cathar? So not overwhelming majority likely : basically starting north,

Languedoc Towns - This map area stops just north of Aurillac and Le  Puy, so excludes Cathar Crusade activity in areas farther north, not in the Languedoc

TOWNS TO LOOK UP
  • Languedoc Towns, Cathar Crusade activity, South of River Dordogne and West of the Rhone River, South to the River Lot:  
Aurillac NT (NT here means not in the Count of Toulouse Estates; T means in the Count of Toulouse Estates area)
Le Puy NT
  • Languedoc Towns, Cathar Crusade activity, south of the River Lot, north of River Tarn
Roder NT
St. Antonin Noble-Val T
Laguepie T
Penne NT
Cordes NT
Bruniquel T
Puycelci NT

Is this reference to Puycelci NT the old ruined Cathar castle, Puivert?


Montauban T
Gaillac NT


  •  Languedoc Towns, Cathar Crusade activity, south of the River Tarn, west of Rhone River
Toulouse, on the River Garonne T
Muret, on the River Garonne NT
Lavaur T
Montpellier NT
Castelnaudary T
Beziers NT (Cathar centers were as often outside as inside the Toulouse Estates)

Cathar Chateaux
Chateau:  de Lastour NT
Chateau: de Minerve NT
.
  • Languedoc Towns, Cathar Crusade activity, on or East of River Ariege, to South of or on River Aude, to Pyrenees and Spain
Carcassonne on Aude NT
Narbonne south of Aude
Fanjeaux NT
Mirepoix NT
Limoux on Aude NT
Foix on Ariege
.
Cathar Chateaux
Chateau de Termes NT
Chateau de Puivert NT
Chateau de Montsegur NT
Chateau de Montaillou NT
Chateau de Peyrepertuse NT
Chateau de Queribus  NT
Chateau de Puilarens
.
  • Languedoc Towns on or east of Rhone River
Avignon T
Fontaine de Vaucluse T
Tarascon NT
Les Baux NT
.................................................................................

V. CONCLUSION
.
The Cathar Wars. The Albigensian Crusades, after the Town of Albi. The Western Crusade of the Church, against fellow Christians in Europe and Eastern Europe, against "heretics". This was launched conveniently as the Church needed new lands and power after its break with the Eastern Orthodox (the Great Schism abot 1050). Kill, dispossess, confiscate. It took the Church, then the French monarchy joining, 300 years to do it. The Monarchy joined the Church, thus gaining the South of France for itself.
.
Catharism, the Cathars, what did they do to anyone other than hold beliefs contraire. They were successful, educated, cultured, people who believed in dualism: there is good, there is evil, and the deity is not all-powerful. There is struggle. Live simply, respectfully of others, the leaders (men and women) in celibacy but in the community and also working.
.
The theory is enough for the Church's heresy definition. Find a start on a chronology here, without which the whole period continues blurred, under ecclesiastical rugs. Where, what beliefs, role of concept of heresy, ideological slants allowing no deviation, persecution for beliefs, not actions against others. See FN 3.
.


At this distance in time from our western offical "Crusades," it is easy to dismiss them as unimportant, remote from contemporary issues. Examine, instead, each one, and the role of violence against unbelievers as a pattern now expanded to political opponents.
.
The crusade against the Christian Cathars of Southern France exemplifies the mindset. The place: the Languedoc. What was the motivation of the church, was that justified, and did western Christianity then solidify its turn to the violent, an approach still with us -- a monoculture imposed. What was the context for this particular crusade: there were others in the Middle East, the Holy Land; and in Northern Europe, the Northern Crusades; and Inquisitions (3) and wars of religion, all part of the pattern.
.
I. Heresy Overview. Those with differing beliefs, originally. Their forced conversion: in turn, the ultimate heresy, as having nothing to do with the Founder, and everything to do with marketing and turf.
.
II. Chronology
.
What issues of the validity of dogma are raised by the Western Christian institution's theology of forced conversion. Crusades. These are not primarily for salvation, but for turf and marketing and power, see that idea at Go East, Young Knight, by Peter Frankopan NYT 2.12.2012 (update). Territory, not faith.
.
.
How did death for nonbelievers become theologically required for the west? And perhaps for other religions. How does the Eastern Orthodox Christian institution so successfully finesse the kind of ersatz theology that enables the "group" to kill dissenters, and focus the more important issues of fostering the individual's religious life, and mutual respect? What form does 'killing' nonbelievers assume today.
.
III. Discussion
.
IV. Footnotes [intentionally before the conclusion, because the information is important]
.
FN 1 History of the Cathars
FN 2 History of violence in the institutional Roman church
FN 3 Cathar beliefs (benevolence), prosperous economics, inclusive structure. Ethnic cleansing, western style
FN 4 The territory: Cathar towns and castles
.
V. Conclusion.
.....................................................................................
I. HERESY. Soundbite.
.
Marketing, turf, power, over salvation. Religion morphs into the secular. Vet history. The greatest theological error, and political error, of the early Church (and to our own day), was and is forced conversion. Whether other religions do that as well is not the point.
.
Forced conversion. Where did that come from? Consider the possibility: There were really no "heretics." Heresy was a red herring, a pretext for consolidating power. Heresy and heretics were only obstacles to the New Monolith of Roman Christianity, or other religions with an equivalent of "heresy" used to support its territorial interests. The Eastern Orthodox finessed the details of a fake theology and focused on aesthetics, to inspire. Was that more effective, and was that so?
.
As to the Roman branch of Christianity, did focus on Heresy increase, especially after it severed itself from the larger Orthodox Christian Church on about 1050. Ask. Why the force in the west? Is it so transparently political. Was original "Christianity" indeed voluntary, east or west. The person may choose. If the person leaves, no-one chases or hunts the person down.

1.  As to religion, for the emerging institution to follow Paul and his Roman inclinations, not Jesus, in the male-oriented hierarchical, even Roman Mithraic (fast overview of issues and speculations at http://www.vexen.co.uk/religion/mithraism.html), custom for religious ritual and focusing on that ritual.  This was indeed practical,  in order to gain Roman converts probably; but anathema to the egalitarian precepts of the Founder; and set the stage for further deviations from teaching of the Founder, in order to serve the interests of the institution;  see also role of Benedictine Rules and controls in the institution.

2. As to politics, for the emerging institution to seek property and power: armies, fix force, revenge and retaliation as means of forced conversion, while exterminating hold-outs, rather than follow peaceful, healing lives by example. Turn down armies?  How else to grow the institution?
.
Cathar Wars. Albigensian Crusade 1209-1255.  Religion in a time of pyres.  Death to the tolerant, the autonomous, the egalitarian. Excluded here but similar:  The Northern Crusades, against Orthodox and others in Northern Europe; and the Balkan Crusades, against Bogomils and other dualists.
.
When "religion" becomes a culture, it loses its religion. Is that so?

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Keepers of immortality. What sort of thing were the "blue apples"?
Jesus as a resident of Sothern France with Mary and children.
Old stories...The last stand...many mysteries.