Monday, May 1, 2017

Wars of caste and class: Timeline US. Rankism, servitude and profit. Fixing winners and losers.

US the dark side. Its mindset infections from slavery, servitude, supremacism, segregation and immigration quotas, depriving groups of autonomy for the sake of profits, rankism. Wars for expansion, accumulation, exclusion, exploitation. Not just survival.

And then there is inspiration, innovation, even genius. A moral and pragmatic sense of interconnection. Wars to counter force and exploitation. When. Who. Why. How. Whether? Must? Choices? For What? Repeat.


I.   Background. 
II.  Issues
III. Resources
IV. Timeline:  Evolution of social divisions. Whose assertion of what rights succeeds. How?
  • 1200-1500, 1500's, 1600's, 1700's, 1800's, 1900's, 2000's.
I. Background.  American internal status and ideological wars. A scrum of races, genders, ethnic groups, politics, religion, those who arrive at their station by choice, those by force -- arms or custom, Predictably, those with power sought to keep it, and get more, regardless of cost to others. Colonialism old and new. Somebodies v. nobodies. Class became caste, fixed by reduced options. Corruption. Kleptocracy -- enrich self by office. Who got left out. Plenty, Leave? Go where. How? Owe the soul to the company store. Unrest. Revolt.

II. Issues.  Is the pattern to attain and keep supremacy a matter of human nature, or is it a cultural transmission. Does any culture foster coordination, respect, aid, as well as competition. With what result?

Either way, can we contain it, religious, social, political.  Should we: for species survival, for stability. Hear the sounds:  Bob Dylan's take in A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall, performed by Patti Smith, at his award of the Nobel Prize for Literature. Privilege. Disrespect. A lethal virus. "Get back, get back. Get back to where you once belonged"  The Beatles, 1970, single 1969,  Album: Let It Be. 


III. Resources for a start
    The working classes; and then the Burgesses
    • Servant or laborer - works for pay; contract could be room and board in exchange for service
    • Indentured servant - time-limited labor or service, to pay off a debt (such as cost of passage from Europe), with release and even a small stipend possible at the end of term, barring bad behavior; a/k/a "bound" person. Headright system: Property owners were encouraged to bring in labor: owners were paid by the head.
    • Peon -- laborer without fixed contract of duration, works to pay off debts to the owner, but the debt keeps increasing. See Slavery v. Peonage.
    • Slave -- Status and rights vary. Origins could be war booty; or purchase at a market, sometimes kidnapped; forced servitude expanded from rights to buy freedom, even position of respect in an ancient family, to legislated status as not fully human, chattel, mere property (US form).
    • Sharecropper -- work the owner's fields for a share of the crop 
    • House of Burgesses -- VA 1619. The American experience did not start from scratch. It drew upon the European background of privilege, fixing who is entitled to rule in early chartered (for profit) settlements. Virginia: legislature of 22 free (not indentured, see above) white men elected representing 11 plantations. Religious settlements: governance to fit the ideology.
    Timeline

    1200-1500 -- Rights, denials. Cultural differences.

    1215 -- Britain's Magna Carta.  Monarch to consult. The idea of an assemblage. Issue: who gets to be consulted? Model of representation and consultation carried over to early Virginia, broadly, see http://www.ushistory.org/us/2f.asp. Issue of who gets to participate underlying revolts. Divine right of kings:  Idea for population control, that the king is there because God wills it. Fast forward:

    1495 -- Caribbean. Spain was under Moorish control, with slavery, for centuries, and ending only in 1492 (yes, same year) when Ferdinand and Isabella reconquered Spain.  The concept was there. See Spain and slavery

    Columbus loaded ships with Indians to sell as slaves to repay himself for the gold he did not find. The Tainos were thought to be good candidates, in a move not approved by the monarchs. They engaged in mixed messages to justify it: ongoing, see the Tainos as in need of protection from abuses of forced slavery, but it was acceptable to force their conversion to Catholicism, to be Spanish subjects, and compel them to work as hard as needed to produce great profits. See http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/african_laborers_for_a_new_emp/the_spanish_and_new_world_slav.
    • Read conditions, couching slavery as payment of tribute through labor, idea of the "just war" -- anyone who did not accept Christianity or rebelled against the Crown was deserving of death -- [sounds like the Crusades]; and 'rescue' -- buy captives in order to convert them, or save them from dreaded practices of their captors, citing cannibalism. Upshot -- ultimately did not work, factors include European diseased reducing the slave labor stock. See site.  
    1498 -- England. John Cabot was from Genoa, worked for the English to find passage to Asia, and was not motivated by slavery as a commodity. He navigated from Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New England, down to Delaware, and claimed it for Henry VII, believing it was indeed Asia. The English later claimed this gave them superior right to the Dutch, whose English Henry Hudson worked for them, and explored similar areas.  See http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html

    1500. Roots of servitude expand.  

    1500's-1800's -- Domestic Violence. See http://www.pacwrc.pitt.edu/Curriculum/310DomesticViolenceIssuesAnIntroductionforChildWelfareProfessionals/Handouts/HO3DomesticViolenceTimeline.pdf. Wife beating as means of correction, or 'emergency' with switches of a given size,
    1501 -- Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella permit Sub-Saharan African slaves to be transported to Hispaniola and the Caribbean provided they were born in Spain. See http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/african_laborers_for_a_new_emp/early_trans_atlantic_slave_tra. 

    1513 -- A black man, Juan Garrido, came to Iberia from Africa, was with Ponce de Leon in coming ashore near St. Augustine. See http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-appell/the-pivotal-black-history_b_6038342.html

    1542 -- Caribbean. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's 'New Laws' outlawed 'Amerindian' slavery, limited inheritance of the large farming estates encomiendas, required that workers had to be paid, etc., see http://ldhi.library.cofc.edu/exhibits/show/african_laborers_for_a_new_emp/the_spanish_and_new_world_slav   Strongly opposed.  Owners began to look to Africa, not the Indians, for labor.

    1565 -- FL.  Spanish founded St. Augustine, FL. 
     
    1581 -- FL.  Blacks were brought to St. Augustine. What was their status? The word 'slavery' even then? See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html 

    1600-- Taint of servitude? or merely economic necessity.

    1606 -- Britain.  The Crown chartered The Virginia Company. See terms.  We like to think that the American colonies were founded for religious liberty etc., but that was only for some. Others were for sheer money-making, whatever was needed to get that job done.

    Why were colonies founded:  Start with https://quizlet.com/7437425/13-colonies-reasons-for-settlement-flash-cards/;  expand at http://www.qrcodesinmarketing.net/american-colonies.html. 
    New England, Middle, and Southern.  For the Dutch colonies, see http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html.

    1619 -- VA. First House of Burgesses.  

    17th-18th C -- Indentured servitude made colonies possible. Some 50% of white immigrants from Ireland, Scotland, Germany, were brought as indentured servants to the British 13 colonies, see http://bilerico.lgbtqnation.com/2008/04/black_history_birth_of_colonial_slavery.php.  As profits fell with increased costs of indentured servants (free at the end of their contracts, supposedly, and with some resources, including less desirable land, given to get them going, slavery -- lifelong labor without pay or recourse, became more popular.
    • However, bondage was contrary to Common Law, see http://www.mirandakaufmann.com/common-law.html so a careful semantic balance in what was overt and covert, in order to support bondage, was required. Europe varied in its use of it, much depending on whether the British person did the enslaving, or just brought some back home, see site. Rome's view of two classes -- free or slave -- justifying many forms.  See Slavery in the United States
    1606 -- VA.  Colony's purpose: enrich the shareholders back home, Virginia Company. No issue of religious freedom. Named for Elizabeth I, virgin queen.

    1607-1617 -- VA. Divide between labor and owners carries on from Old World, as anywhere.  Indentured servants arrive to provide labor for colony, see http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/indentured-servants-in-the-us/.  Mix:  104 men and boys. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html Indentured servitude was a system invented by the Virginia Company, a joint-stock venture,  to provide cheap labor in the colony, since passage by payment was so expensive, and only the rich could afford it.  A corporate invention to suit its profit needs. The rich in London would buy shares, provide capital to the company, and then get back profits.

    1609-1621 -- NY extended.  New Netherland Colony.  The Netherlands was known as the States General for the Netherland Provinces. See http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html.  They hired Henry Hudson of England to explore for them a route to the East Indies and to claim anything yet uncharted for the Netherlands.  Hudson so claimed land up the now Hudson River to the now Albany.

    1611 -- Netherlands. Dutch merchant Arnout Vogels set up to explore Hudson's Bay, made several trips, one with a ship with Adriaen Block as captain, who then returned on his own and traded. Much trading followed, and the New Netherlands Company was foundedd in 1614. No colonies were established, however, and the company lost its monopoly. Land opened to all Dutch traders. the States General needed permanence there and in its areas of Brazil and Africa, to keep out the English, French or Spanish.

    1618-1623 -- 'Great Migration' of population to Jamestown (elsewhere?), because of the need for labor, but many died of disease,  Indian conflicts, malnutrition, see https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html
     1619 --Netherlands.   Dutch ship, White Lion, captures 20 'enslaved' blacks from a Spanish ship, and went to Jamestown and traded them for food and supplies as indentured servants (was that a step up?)see https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html; details at http://bilerico.lgbtqnation.com/2008/04/black_history_birth_of_colonial_slavery.php.
    Indentured servants were freed at the end of their indenture, provided land and supplies by former owners

    1619 -- VA.  Charter colony had been founded in 1607.  Now comes the first legislative assembly, representing the plantations: the House of Burgesses.  Famous burgesses:  http://www.ushistory.org/us/2f.asp

    1620 -- Massachusetts
    • 1620 -- Plymouth; followed by colonies at Weymouth (failed) and Salem
    • 1629 --  Massachusetts Bay Colony; both for religious freedom
    1621 -- Netherlands. The Dutch West India Trading Company was founded with a 20-year monopoly in America and Africa; sought status as a province, got it, and sought settlers. 1624 -- shipload of Flemish Walloons arrived, not Dutch, and they were spread out too thin among various outposts including Fort Orange, there were fights with Indians, the colonists had to centralize, Peter Minuit was sent to organize a real town,

    1621 -- VA.  Jamestown.  Black indentured servant does well. 'Antonio a Negro', later Andrew Johnson served as indentured servant in Jamestown, for the Bennett family, had use of a plot of land, supplies, married, was freed, changed his name to signify freedom, became a landowner of 250 acres, See http://mdroots.thinkport.org/library/anthonyjohnson.asp   Antonio Johnson. Jamestown at the time was considered as Maryland.  
    • No slavery laws were in place at that time. Blacks and whites were both considered indentured servants, and with the same opportunity to become freemen at the end of their term. See http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/indentured-servants-in-the-us/ 
      • Problems:  Indentured servants could go free in time (often in just 7 years), and with a starter of resources expected,and even seeking a patch of land. This squeezed the landowners more, so 'racial slavery' became more and more the profitable route.  See PBS.
     1622 -- VA.  Had no law on slavery, and came from no tradition of it. https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=faculty_scholarship at p. 2. See Virginia Company ultimately failed to turn profits, and even converting Indians to Christianity failed (to produce enough labor, or what?) and a massacre of settlers in 1622 was the end of the colony as a company. Fake news -- "Instructions in late 1606 from the Virginia Company stressed 'above all things' the need to hide the numbers of English sick and deceased to prevent the Virginia Indians from seizing upon the colony’s weakness."  Tobacco was promising, but came late. See http://historicjamestowne.org/history/virginia-company/

    VA -- First mainland British colony to establish slavery, even if not by that exact name, see https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=faculty_scholarship

    1624 -- VA.  Va Company charter was revoked. Colony became a Royal Colony under control of King James I, who died in 1625, succeeded by eldest son Charles I (in times of great religious turmoil, see http://www.historyofengland.net/kings-and-queens/the-stuarts-kings-queens-1603-1660#).  Indentured servitude lived on, however, essential to the colonies;a third to a half of all immigrants to the colonies were indentured servants, see http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/indentured-servants-in-the-us/

    Early status discriminations:  The same offense committed by an indentured servant or a non-servant: the indentured servant received the harsher punishment. See http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/indentured-servants-in-the-us/ 

    1628 -- NY. New Netherlands as a colony needed more profits for the company's investors. It set up a system of Patroons, like feudal lords, in charge of their own lands, who would bring in their own colonists at their own expense, but this was still unattractive because the company kept the fur and fishing trading profits. Shareholder Killaean von Rensselaer changed the rules -- more favorable to the Patroon.  Colonies Dutch, and English, dickered and agreed on boundaries, and set up defenses against the Swedes and the Finns. See http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html

    1633 --  MD -- Lord Baltimore. Named for Queen Henrietta Maria, French, wife of King Charles I. Safe haven for Catholics (see religious issues of the day, http://www.historyofengland.net/kings-and-queens/the-stuarts-kings-queens-1603-1660#)

    1636 -- CT -- Originally Dutch 1630's, then English took in 1636 with Thomas Hooker, Puritan; religious freedom, voting rights

    1636 -- RI -- 1620 start of stragglers; 1636 formal colony by Puritan Roger Williams who was banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony; for religious freedom

    1637 -- MA. Samuel Lincoln, ancestor of Abraham Lincoln, immigrant servant. a
    white serf" of Francis Lawes, a weaver who emigrated to Boston with his wife and two servants (including Samuel Lincoln) arrives from England. See The Workers in American History by James Oneal (herein Workers) at p.54.

    1638 -- Dutch West India Trading Company relaxes some prohibitions against other traders and colonies, but many take advantage of this: crooked merchants, growers, wholesalers, etc. but the New Netherlanders held fast to ties with the homeland ties, not the new swindlers. British market shenanigans forced the Verbrugge family to abandon their Virginia tobacco trading; but others prevailed, so far. New England colonies were not so secure. See http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html 

    1640 -- VA. Legislature, House of Burgesses, comprised of elected landowners, dominated by planters emerging as their own class. Interest:  control the colony's laborers, white, black. Secure the investments in them, and it was growing especially as to investments in blacks. No clear definition of slavery, however. See Duke.edu. at p.4.

    1640 -- VA. John Punch.  Court sentences a black indentured servant to slavery. See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html.  His name:  John Punch, a runaway, thus laying groundwork for blacks being enslaveable.  White runaways were not enslaved. See https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=faculty_scholarship.
    John Punch escaped with European indentured servants;  Victor (Dutch); and James Gregory (Scots) Another negro, Emanuel (McIlwane?), ran away with indentured servants Christopher Miller and John Williams  (Dutch) and John Will (Dutch, and a Chirugeon - surgeon) and four other unidentified, presumed English. The usual punishment was whipping and branding, and adding to the time of servitude. See Slavery in America at p.5, n.27.

    1641 -- MA.  Legalizes slavery.  See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html
    See Body of Liberties quoted there, section 19:  Bond slavery, villeinage (feudal), captivity acceptable if lawfully taken in just ward, or willingly sell themselves to us, or who are sold to us. They shall have such liberties and Christian usages as the law of God in Israel established, morally required. See full text of the Body of Liberties at http://www.constitution.org/bcp/mabodlib.htm.
    Liberties to each man ' by his place and proportion.'
     
    1641 -- VA. Haphazard laws.  This black servant, or possibly even a slave, John Graweere,  was allowed to buy the freedom of his son, see  https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=faculty_scholarship

    1643 -- New England Federation:  passes fugitive slave law, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1646 -- NY.  New Netherland.  Island of Manhate. Jesuit priest wrote of its ethnic diversity: 4-500 men of diverse backgrounds, 18 different languages, settlement still subject to Indian incursions.  See http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html

    1650 -- RI. Restricts slavery. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1650's -- New World.  Gradually. rise in slave labor replaced indentured servitude, white labor did not thrive, illness in tropical climates, replacements needed, kept on as skilled workers sometimes, but even then blacks were being trained for that work, see Gettysburg.edu, Decline in Indentured Servitude 

    By 1650, MD - Best Tidewater land already n hands of white plantation owners. see  http://mdroots.thinkport.org/library/anthonyjohnson.asp. As indentured servants were freed. fewer places to go and prosper, less integration of races, see site.

    1654 -- MD.  Former black indentured servant Anthony Johnson, now a landowner, see 1621, purchased a black slave named John Casor in Maryland, Northampton County.  Casor then "became the first legal slave in America," with the description, 'propter for life,'  *  see https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html.  Apparently Casor argued that the English Common Law did not permit such slavery, but the Court found that Africans were not protected by the Common Law (see site).  Johnson, however, also a black, was so protected in his property interest. Law passes:  blacks can hold slaves, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    Anthony Johnson also owned white indentured servants, see https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=faculty_scholarship

    * Propter for life, is that property for life? See Slavery in the United States, Persons or Property by Paul Finkelman, at https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=faculty_scholarship, 2012, excellent survey.

    1654 --  NY.  Jews. To New Amsterdam. The Dutch West India Company of Brazil, defeated at its colony called New Holland by the Portuguese after an 8-year rebellion, sent 23 Jews to New Amsterdam. See http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html.  Some in the province sought their removal, but lost because a) some shareholders of the West India Company were Jewish merchants, and b) compromise was reached by letting them stay in a segregated way (earlyghetto?) and worship but not build a synagogue.The Jewish stockholders also intervened when a punishment meted out to one of the New Amsterdam Jewish settlers for something minor was too harsh. 

    1646-55 -- Netherlands.  Dutch capture New Sweden. Population in New Netherlands -- many Germans, Swedes, Finns.  German-Scandinavian Lutherans began holding services with unapproved pastors, religious disputes arose over ideology among the protestants, but were shoved under the rug satisfactorily. See http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html. 
    Villages by ethnicity:  English were Newtown, Gravesend, Hemptead, Flushing and Jamaica; Dutch were Brooklyn, Flatlands, Flatbush, New Utrecht and Bushwick.

    1657 -- VA. Runaways. Passes law against runaway servants, no category named as "slave" -- that term not used yet, condition not recognized legally as such. Instead, all were servants subject to their term limits, no expectation of lifetime, see Slavery in America at 5. Punishment for runaways: branding, whipping, add to term of service.  By 1659-1660, laws recognized status of slavery in that 'slaves' brought in by Dutch or others had certain taxes applied, etc.Runaway 'slaves' already for life could not have term added as punishment, so any European indentured servants who ran away with slaves would have the slave's  'extra' time served by the indentured servant, to discourage cooperation. in the escape. This also set European indentureds against blacks slaves, empowered and entrenched planters, set stage for lifetime bondage. And no definition yet of  'slavery' -- leaving laws blurry.

     1660-1674 -- Netherlands. Dutch-English rivalries, battles, back and forth throughout their colonies, with annexations and alliances and moves countermoves and skulduggeries, resulting in the English prevailing over the Dutch, see http://www.coins.nd.edu/ColCoin/ColCoinIntros/Netherlands.html

    1660 -- VA. No mention of slavery before this time.  Women and men -- subject to a tax ('tithable') both. Recognizes economic value. See Slavery in America

    1662 -- VA.  Hereditary slave law. A child takes on the status of the mother as to slavery. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html 
    This abrogated Common Law where a bastard child took the status of the father. free if free. VA instead turned to Roman law, where, as with livestock, the ownership of offspring of a female beast stayed with the owner of the female beast.  This new law freed up the men to do their thing. See Slavery in America at p.7.  Further statutes: Blacks could not  testify against whites. No legal bar to rape or requirements for support for negro bastardy. White bastards had to be supported. See site.

    1663 -- MD.  Legalizes slavery. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html 

    1663 -- SC - Colony founded by Charter from Charles II granted to 8 nobles. Crown took it over again in 1729. See https://www.thoughtco.com/south-carolina-colony-103881


    1664 -- NY -- Originally Dutch Peter Stuyvesant. 1664: surrendered to English, renamed New York after Duke of York (title usually goes to 2d son of the monarch) The Duke of York here became King James II. Legalizes slavery. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1664 -- NJ -- Originally Dutch, then English in 1664, divided into east and west, then unified -- as a state, it is smaller than it was as a colony. The Duke of York, later King James II, blockaded the New Amsterdam harbor, Peter Stuyvesant did not fight it, so the King got control of New Netherland, and gave land to friends Sir George Carteret (born on the British Isle of Jersey)and Lord Berkeley, and that became New Jersey. Advertised for settlers: religious freedom (for Protestants), representative govt. Some 400,000 acres went to a group of Baptists, Quakers, Puritans arrived. See https://www.thoughtco.com/new-jersey-colony-103874.  Legalizes slavery, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1664 -- MD -- No white woman to marry a black male, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html .  All black slaves to serve for life. See site. Other colonies followed suit.

    1667 -- VA.  Baptism of negro shall not alter bondage.  Slavery in America at p.7

    1670 -- VA. No free black or Indian shall have a white (Christian) slave. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1672 -- VA.  Black indentured servant Edward Mozingo was declared free after serving his term. His owner had to pay him his corn and clothes and 400 lbs of tobacco as freedom dues. https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5386&context=faculty_scholarship.  Slavery: no simple definition, see site.

    Britain charters the Royal African Company, with monopoly so that only way to get slaves to America was through its company. Challenged by MA successfully in 1680. See http://www.masshist.org/teaching-history/loc-slavery/essay.php?entry_id=504

    1674 -- NJ.  West Jersey was sold by Lord Berkeley to Quakers. His heirs got  East Jersey. The West Jersey Quakers provided for the vote for nearly all adult males.

    1676 -- VA. Jamestown.  Bacon's Rebellion, really clash of two stubborn people, Governor Berkeley, representing the aristocratic minority, and Nathaniel Bacon, Jr, a distant relative, smallholder;  rather than signifying first stirrings to Revolution against authority, see https://www.nps.gov/jame/learn/historyculture/bacons-rebellion.htm. See variety of economic causes, all converging, family feud of the two principles, lands set aside for whites but population spilling over into Indian lands, indentured servants opposing the governor supporting Indians, scapegoating Indians, escalations, attacks:  In 1675, one group of Indians attacked a plantation in a dispute of payment owed the Indians, colonists retaliated by attacking the wrong tribe, larger scale Indian raids ensued. Governor set up a meeting, but several chiefs were killed there; division of Indians ultimately into good ones and and bad ones, forcibly disarming them, and declaring war on the bad. set up barriers, and cost was passed on to colonists as taxes. On and on until 1676 when Bacon burned down Jamestown, but died of disease before hangman got there; and Berkeley was forced back to England. Is that it? Upshot: need for new policies for new problems. See complexity of issues, some like today, at http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h521.html

    1679 --NH -- stragglers 1623 (still part of MA colony) to escape the d@!*X$  Puritans; 1679 Royal Colony.  Scots Irish formed a settlement in 1719. See http://www.qrcodesinmarketing.net/american-colonies.html

    1680 -- VA.  Blacks not to congregate, bear arms; and harsh punishments for assaulting Christians or attempting escape. http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html 

    See details of many laws, slave as property, convoluted provisions,  Slavery in America at pp.7ff

    1680 -- MA.  Machinations to avoid a British monopoly on slave trade, see http://www.masshist.org/teaching-history/loc-slavery/essay.php?entry_id=504

    1681 -- PA -- King Charles II gave charter to William Penn, Quaker.  See http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/portal/communities/pa-history/1681-1776.html.  The King owed a debt to Penn, see site. 

    1682 -- NJ.  East New Jersey was sold to William Penn, a  Quaker, as well as much of Delaware -- thus Quakers administered much land.

    1694 -- Carolinas.  Start rice plantations, increasing demand for black slaves. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1698 -- Increased participation in slave trade led to the Triangular Trade route, see http://www.masshist.org/teaching-history/loc-slavery/essay.php?entry_id=504 

    1700 -- Servitude as economic neceessity moves into social pejoratives. Fixing hierarchies. 

    1700 -- MA,  Pamphlet, The Selling of Joseph, against practices to compel ongoing servitude, see http://www.masshist.org/teaching-history/loc-slavery/essay.php?entry_id=504

    1701 -- DE -- Originally Dutch; that failed; then came Swedes, but the Dutch came back. Then the English won out. Then Dutch again. Around and around until independent 1701.

    1702 -- NJ.  East and West join as a Royal Colony, with an elected legislature.

    1712 -- NY - Revolt. Slaves: 23.  Violence, and 70 blacks imprisoned.  See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html

    1717 -- MA.  Cotton Mather, minister, author, pamphleteer, historian, establishes a school for Indians and slave youth

    1732 -- GA -- James Oglethorpe, colony named for King George II. Give the poor a fresh start.  No man was to make a profit. Settle with people from debtors' prisons in England, or in debt and likely to end up there. Also serve as a haven for Protestants. Then plans changed to include skilled persons. Once there,  "Oglethorpe and the Trustees desired to create a society where every head of household worked on his own land without slaves, creating a single class." How did that work out for ya?

    1738 -- GA. Oglethorpe ran into headwinds.  Georgia: founded as a colony, no slaves, little land ownership.  Slavery was even prohibited. Oglethorpe declared it immoral, and against British law. Residents, however, experiencing the hardships of the colony, blamed its demise on absence of land ownership, rum and slaves. See https://www.founderspatriots.org/articles/georgia.php.

    FL.  St. Augustine  FL became a refuge for fugitive blacks, see http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-appell/the-pivotal-black-history_b_6038342.html , a free black town, see Gracia Real de de Santa Teresa de Mose.

    1739 -- SC.  Stono's Rebellion, or Cato's Rebellion. Killed:  42-27 whites, 44 blacks. See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html;  and http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p284.html

    1741 -- NY.  Insurrection. Slaves and poor whites.  Violence, hangings, set fire to  Governor's house, show trial. lower Manhattan. See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html

    1743 -- GA. Oglethorpe had hoped for a colony sanctuary against persecution, and lost. He left the colony. See https://www.founderspatriots.org/articles/georgia.php

    1750 -- All southern colonies,  plus northern Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, prohibit interracial marriage, see http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_mar14.htm

    1752 -- GA. Becomes a Royal Colony, petitions to revoke the Charter prevailed, and the area became known for plantations and slavery.  When was slavery first brought?

    1764 -- PA. Germans in Philadelphia organize societies to help enslaved Germans and other nationalities endure their deprivations, and got rid of some abuses, Workers at 56.

    1736 -- PA. Founding Father, from indentured origins, we think, and made good.  Arrival of George Taylor, immigrant indentured servant (apparently not mistreated, see http://articles.mcall.com/1984-07-15/news/2436116_1_george-taylor-iron-furnace), with parents, from Ireland, or was it England, and was he not indentured at all but began work as a bookkeeper, sources vary, see https://archive.org/stream/homesofgeorgetay01fack/homesofgeorgetay01fack_djvu.txt. Labored at Durham Furnace, upper Bucks County.

    1753 -- PA. George Taylor Married the boss's widow, became administrator of the estate, but her mother did not like a former indentured servant in charge, and he was asked to resign. George Taylor, then became a manager at Durham Furnace, leased it out for the making of various products, or was it Coventry Forge and Warwick Furnace, more differing records, see https://archive.org/stream/homesofgeorgetay01fack_djvu.txt

    1770 -- PA. George Taylor by then a 'radical' member of the Pennsylvania Assembly, and ultimately signed the Declaration of Independence. Transformed the ironworks into munitions, but was held back by his legal status as mere leaseholder, see 1753 above. The owner, a loyalist, caused the property to be confiscated. See https://archive.org/stream/homesofgeorgetay01fack/homesofgeorgetay01fack_djvu.txt 

    MA.  Black Crispus Attucks protested the British restricting liberties, Boston Massacre and was killed as the first to die in the Revolution. See https://www.army.mil/africanamericans/timeline.html

    1775 -- British Lord Dunmore offers freedom in exchange for any white indentured servant or negro leaving his master and fighting for the British, see Workers in America at 55. General fear among colonists seeking independence:  that their indentured servants would desert them, fight for British, turn against them.
    • VA -- Responded with colonists' offer to free indentured servants who fought with the rebels. Workers in  America at 55.  Washington's army was mainly bond-slaves, farmers, laborers.  Workers in America at 55.
    1775-1793 -- Blacks in the Revolutionary Army, thousands, slave and free, integrated regiments, but only about 20% of slave soldiers were freed after their service, see  https://www.army.mil/africanamericans/timeline.html.  Black Minutemen fought as well, but no slaves, see site.
    1776 -- By this time, West Indies British stopped importing many white indentured servants to the US, and the few whites coming in went to the Chesapeake and Pennsylvania

    1776 -- Declaration of Independence. "All men are created equal."  Resulted in no change as to Black slaves or white slaves, indentured servants. Purchase and sale of laborers continued, white and black. This trafficking enabled, along with the conquest of natural resources, a ruling class. Workers at 56.
    Revolutionary war 1776-1783.

    Aristocracy:  Grew in influence, wealth, power; and with land ownership, political power.  Workers at 56.

    Legislation: Reflects the aristocracy.  Workers at 56. Originalism of the Constitution so fixes. 

    1776 -- PA.  George Taylor's river boats were commandeered by George Washington to cross the Delaware on Chistmas Day, see https://archive.org/stream/homesofgeorgetay01fack  djvu.txt

    1777 -- VT. Still a territory:  Abolishes slavery, see https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html

    1778 -- MA. 'Bound girl' Deborah Sampson Gannett, a servant,(a 'bound girl' see Workers in America at 55) saved for cloth and made herself a man's uniform and joined the army, see http://www.revolutionarywararchives.org/womansoldier.html, served as Robert Shirtliffe, and ultimately was given a Congressional pension, see http://www.awm.lee.army.mil/research_pages/gannett_deborah.htm

    1778-1781 -- RI.  First Rhode Island Regiment was all black; officers were white. The blacks were not compensated, as whites were, for their service after the war ended. See https://www.army.mil/africanamericans/timeline.html

    1780 -- PA . Abolishes slavery. See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html

    1781 -- NY. Partial abolition.  Abolishes slavery for black who fought on the rebel side in the Revolutionary War. See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html. 
    In 1827, full abolition.

    1783 -- New York. British evacuate.  Land grants given to veteran soldiers, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1785 -- MD.  Three Chinese arrive in Baltimore -- seamen on the ship Pallas. See  http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/collections/chinese-immigration-to-the-united-states-1884-1944/timeline.htm  (here, Berkeley Timeline, Chinese)

    1787 -- Constitution of the United States.  No mention of slavery but many protections for it. Firest mention:  1865 13th Amendment. See Slavery in the United States.  South was by then convinced of its moral rectitude, religious support, and economic necessity. see site p. 11.  All slaves (not specific reference to Blacks) were to be counted as 3/5 of a person compared to free whites. See http://www.blackpast.org/aah/three-fifths-clause-united-states-constitution-1787.
    Congress could not ban slavery before 1808, but could regulate, and did. See 1794. 

    1788 -- Philadelphia.  Ratification of the Constitution.

    1789 -- Bill of Rights.  Left bondage issue as it was. See Slavery in America at 15.

    1790 -- Congress.  Naturalization Act 1790. Citizenship limited to 'free white persons' 'of good moral character. Two year residency. See http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/collections/chinese-immigration-to-the-united-states-1884-1944/timeline.html

    1794 -- US. Slave Trade Act of 1794.  No ships to be outfitted to carry slaves. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html 

    1795 -- Second Naturalization Act, Naturalization Act 1795  Free whites:  3-5 year residency, and give up your noble titles. Stayed in effect until 1952.

    1797 -RI. John Brown, slaver and businessman, was arrested for violating the Slave Trade Act, see biography at http://www.rihs.org/mssinv/Mss312.htm.   Penalties follow for others continuing the slave trade. See site.

    1800-- Entitlement to poorly paid or slave labor becomes culture for the privileged.

    1807 -- Britain.  Bans slave trade. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    1808 -- US.  Bans slave trade. 1820 -- slave trading punishable by death, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html. By 1825 - some 1,175,000 slaves here, most born here. See site.

    1812-1818 -- War of 1812.  Blacks fought in own regiments and in integrated units, others supplied materiel, https://www.army.mil/africanamericans/timeline.html

    1817 -- PA. Philadelphia. Sale of white slaves, one German Swiss, two French Swiss, Workers at 56; PA statutes reference them 1818.

    1819 -- US law provides for return of negroes to Africa.  Liberia created. See Slavery in America at 18ff.

    1818-1840 -- Rise of slave labor, immigration pattern changes,  period of reduction in use of indentured servants in America, see Gettysburg edu, Decline of Indentured Servitude.
    Hazards remained: example, if a fare had been paid by someone here who was not present when the immigrant arrived, the immigrant might be jailed and sold, see site.

    1820-1825 -- The Antelope. Spanish ship, collected slaves, American captain, caught for violating the anti-slave trade act, which slaves belonged to whom, persons or property, see Slavery in America at 18. Who was to be free and who not was a matter of a lottery.

    1822 -- Animal rights.  British Parliament protects farm animals from cruelty.  See timeline of animal rights at http://www.lancerlibrary.org/uploads/8/7/7/0/8770112/animal_rights_timeline_abc-clio.pdf
    In 1824,London.  SPCA is founded. see site, and for subsequent activities 1800's 1900's.

    • Fast forward to 1994:  Tyke the Elephant. On rampage at circus, escapes, kills trainer. Cops gun him/her down. See Animal Rights Timeline.
    1827 -- NY abolishes slavery. See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html
     
    1829 -- Sale of  'redemptioners' or white servant-slaves was halted, Workers at 56. But see 1831 -- registry shows binding of a redemptioner in Philadelphia. Id.

    1830's -- British West Indies. Slavery abolished (as to both whites and blacks?). Gettysburg edu, Decline in Indentured Servitude. Slavery-servitude not abolished as to other places, however.
    • 1830's -- British Guiana, Trinidad, Jamaica, Cuba and Peru. 
    • Ongoing need for labor:  British imported labor from new sources:  China, India
    1830 ff -- US Indian Removal Act; Trail of Tears, with removal of Choctaw, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html.  Signed by President Andrew Jackson.  Do tell Trump.  See https://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Indian.html.  1832 -- Chickasaw Indians treaty to receive $3,000,000 for lands unpaid for years, see site.

    1830 -- Census. three Chinese live here, but many Chinese peddlers, sailors in NY.  See Berkeley Timeline, Chinese

    1831-1866 -- Anti-slavery newspaper, William Lloyd Garrison, see http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1561.html  "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD."  See site.

    1831 -- VA. Justified fear of rebellion.

     Nat Turner's Rebellion see https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/history.html.  Killed some 51 whites. See also https://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2013/08/on-this-day-in-1831-a-bloody-uprising-in-the-virginia-countryside/278905/
    1840's -- US develops Manifest Destiny idea to explain and justify as mission its desired  expansionism, supremacism see http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/manifest_destiny_overview.html

    Immigrant servitude.  Slow-down, virtual halt, immigrant servitude, see Gettysburg edu Decline in Indentured Servitude.  Factors:  Immigrants able to pay own fares,  immigrant networks for aid, banking enabled fares to be sent abroad, eased repayment arrangements. Result of reduced indenture:  costs increased to approximate wage labor. Pool of wage earners increased, but owners wanted something cheaper. Enter slavery. See site. 

    1840's-1860 -- China. Increase in "Coolie Trade" - get cheap labor from China, by kidnapping, violence, deceit. Big market: South America, Cuba, US. see http://immigrants.harpweek.com/ChineseAmericans/2KeyIssues/CoolieLabor.htm  See 1878

    1841 -- Blacks. The Amistad.  Ship from Cuba carrying slaves, mutiny, caught, who was to remain slave and who not.  Those who had not been brought legally as slaves to Cuba could go free, but the cabin boy who had been a slave while in Cuba, was returned to slavery. Principle:  Free men could fight for the ir liberty, but a bonded one could not.  See Slavery in United States at 20.

    1845 -- Black in public life. Former slave Frederick Douglass, abolitionist, publishes autobiography see http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1539.html . See Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written By Himself.   Click on the sections, scroll down, and read.  As the son of a black and an unknown white woman, would he necesarily have been considered a slave at that time?

    1846-1848 -- Mexico.  Mexican-American War.  At conclusion, with borders readjusted in US favor, Mexican farm workers in great numbersbegan crossing the border to the US, no barriers, and many went back and forth thereafter, see  Timeline of Agricultural Workers.
    1847 -- CT and China.  Brilliant student, from China, to Yale. Yung Wing and 2 other students. Yung Wing excels, graduates, see http://ceas.yale.edu/yung-wing.   Choir, football, Boat Club, prizes. established large library and an educational mission. He sent 120 students to US schools, etc. See site. 

    1847-1857  -- Perpetuating servitude.  Dred Scott. Owner had taken him to several states, not all slave states: should slavery be allowed in new states. Dred Scott sued for freedom. Finally at Supreme Court.  Dred Scott decision:  No Negro could be a citizen or sue in Federal Court. Lower courts had one both ways, facts were disputed, different states treated issues on their own, who knew what rights, and ultimately once a slave, a slave. His former master had fine sons, however, who bought his freedom, but Dred Scott died within the year.   See Slavery in America at 24 ff.

    1848-1920 --  Women's Suffrage  Timeline.  First large meeting at Seneca Falls, NY, see http://tag.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/suffrage-timeline.pdf

    1848 -- CA..  Gold rush. Chinese population at the time nationally, by 1950:  Chinese = 4,000.  Rest of population (including blacks?) 23,200,000. See http://bancroft.berkeley.edu/collections/chinese-immigration-to-the-united-states-1884-1944/timeline.html

    1849 -- Black working for freedom.  Harriet Tubman, born a slave, escapes, becomes abolitionist, see Underground Railroad. See http://www.biography.com/people/harriet-tubman-9511430.

    1850 -- US Bloodhound Law -- Fugitive slaves to be returned whether in free or slave state, all must obey, see http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html

    White supremacism underlies mindset of too many. See http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/white-supremacy/


    White Supremacism, as seen by the supremacists. Old German print, ours, unsigned, from the '50's.

    1850 -- CA.  Foreign miners tax. Imposed to protect 'native-born whites' from competion from not only Chinese, but others seeking their fortunes and from Germany Chile, Mexico, Ireland, Turkey, and France. See http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/goldrush.html

    1852 -- Slavery.  Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin.  See her Hartford house. https://www.harrietbeecherstowecenter.org/visit/hbs_house.shtml

    1853-1930  -- NY.  Children's rights. Children's Aid Society founded by Charles Loring Brace, and like-minded reformists.  Rescue of abandoned and orphaned children took a highly visible form:  Orphan trains, transporting some 200,000-250,000 to the midwest, west and Canada.  See http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adoption/topics/orphan.html.  Parents could and did often retain contact under some circumstances, with children transferred or shared, not given up, see details at darkwing.   Range of 20th C. adoption studies, seen as a science, see studies.

    1854 -- CA.  People v. Hall. Chinese cannot testify in judicial proceedings due to natural inferiority, read case. See http://www.cetel.org/1854_hall.html

    1854 -- Other immigrants. Polish farm workers.  First community, in Texas. See http://www.polishroots.org/Research/History/polish_farmers_workers/tabid/243/Default.aspx. 


    Farm peasants, Van Gogh, at The Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia

    1855 -- CA.  Excludes Chinese children from public schools, see Excluded, Segregated and Forgotten: A Historical View of the Discrimination of Chinese Americans in Public Schools, by Joyce Kuo,  http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=aalj
    at p.90 ff

    1858 -- CA. Immigration of Chinese and 'Mongolians' prohibited.  See this angry timeline about anti-Asian measures, at http://angryapihistory.tumblr.com/post/50016448077/anti-immigrant-anti-asian-laws

    1859 -- VA. Violence against slavery (in section now West Virginia).  John Brown, abolitionist, at Harper's Ferry.Sought to arm slaves. See http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/john-browns-raid-on-harpers-ferry  
    Local militia prevailed, John Brown was hanged.

    1860 -- U.S. Census. See http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html
    • Slaves:  3,953,761 slaves (some 12.7% of the U.S. pop.)
    • Owners: 393,975 slave holders (some 7.6% of U.S. families) 
    • Total free pop:  27,233,198 
    • Free blacks, African descent:  476,748 (some 1.75% of the free pop.) 
    1860-1930 -- Immigration. Farm workers.  Increase in employer need, growth of big scale industry. Environment hostile to blacks over time, blacks moved out  (see Great Migration Jim Crow. See overview at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/a-brief-history-of-american-farm-labor-67460786/
    1860-1861 -- Slavery, but not the primary issue, at first. Election of Abraham Lincoln, President.  Secession.  Seven states secede to form the Confederacy. See Formation of the Confederaacy.
    1861-65 -- Civil War. President Lincoln at the outset followed basic ideology, that the federal government could not interfere with states' internal matters, traditionally marriage, divorce, child custody, inheritance, voting, and -- freedom. Who has it, who doesn't,  including slavery. At end, 13th Amendment affirms freedom for all slaves.  This is first mention of slavery in the constitution, see 1787. See Slavery in the United States  at pp.27 ff/
    • Emancipation process:  See https://www.civilwar.org/learn/articles/road-emancipation.  The South seceded, attacked the north, blacks fled to the northern side, and the theory then could hold that, as property even, they could be confiscated as any other enemy booty or assets, and so they were.  Confiscated, then emancipated.  
      • In a sense, the act of seceding removed from the South the protection they had as a unified nation, for states to determine internal matters like slavery.  They blew it. Is that so? 
        • But Lincoln also authorized enlistment of blacks. Thus, not property, but people.
          • No issues yet of social or political equality, see site.  
            • 14th Amendment did that: no discrinimation, race, previous servitude, etc. 
              • Then enter the Jim Crow, Black Codes. See below. 
    • DC:  Slaves freed under the theory that they were subject to Congressional regulation, not that of a state.  States' rights undercurrent throughout emancipation issue.
    1862 --  Immigration.  Congress. Pacific Railway Act.  Lincoln. See http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/railroads.html .  1863:  Need - 5000 workers. On hand -- 600.  Solution: Chinese. See http://cprr.org/Museum/Chinese.html. Chinese were recognized for value as workers, having worked on an earlier railroad project, worked with great success and speed, many died. Chinese were paid far less than to the Irish, see site. Chinese could not become citizens, but had to pay taxes to CA.High risk, Indian attack as well as topography. By 1868: of 4,000 workers, 2/3 were Chinese. Irish: got $30 in gold per month plus board provided.  Chinese: got $31 in dollars, but had to pay for board. Completion 1869.

    1862 -- Chinese immigration:  Prohibition of trafficking in Chinese workers.  Coolie Trade Act. American shippers had profited from the "coolie trade" by transport to Cuba, Peru, elsewhere. See http://immigrants.harpweek.com/ChineseAmericans/2KeyIssues/CoolieLabor.htm.  Unfortunately, term coolie came to be applied to all Chinese immigrants, not just those whose passage was paid for them and was to be worked off. See http://library.uwb.edu/Static/USimmigration/1862_anti_coolie_law.html

    1863 -- President Abraham Lincoln, Emancipation Proclamation (practical result: any escapee to Union land became free)

    1865-66 -- Black Codes.  Resistance to emancipation. Many southern states pass Black Codes, to restrict freedoms of Blacks. See http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/black-codes/  These were  harsh, for example, requiring blacks to get a permit to work in a non-agricultural labor field (no pun), preventing their raising own crops, and requiring permission to travel. These (all of them?) were repealed in 1866. See Timeline of Agricultural Labor.  At whose behest? Who was so sensitive? 

    1865-77 -- Reconstruction.  Laws prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude. The 13th Amendment of the Constitution gave all men born in the U.S.- including African Americans - citizenship rights.  The 14th Amentment, equal protection, and the 15th Amendment the right to vote

    1865 -- Freedmen's Bureau established to help freed slaves http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html\\

    1866 -- Resistance.  Ku Klux Klan founded to suppress participation of blacks in politics, among other goals to diminish power of non-whites. Methods over time -- intimidation, and what we would call terrorism. See https://www.thoughtco.com/the-ku-klux-klan-history-721444.
     Nathan Bedford Forrest, first president, Ku Klux Klan. See site for its 1868 catechism. Name:  Ku Klux, from Greek kuklos apparently, meaning group; and Klan just a variant on clan. See http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ku+Klux+Klan

    1866-1891 -- A way out. The frontier option. Blacks fought in Indian-clearance campaigns, and pursued rustlers, bandits, outlaws and Mexican revolutionaries, as settlers increasingly moved west. Black regiments served as cavalry and as infantry. Many: veterans of the Civil War. Blacks comprised 10% of the total force in the west (blacks= 5,000 or so soldiers). See https://www.army.mil/africanamericans/timeline.html. Term "Buffalo Soldiers" was used for blacks serving during the Indian Wars.They had a lower desertion rate than whites despite difficult conditions.

    1866 -- Repeal of Black Codes, see http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/black-codes/

    1867-1965 -- Many southern states pass Jim Crow Laws, see http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/timeline.htm, racial segregation by variety of means and ideological grounds (separate but equal, for ex), see summary at http://www.pilinutpress.com/Articles/Research/SlaveryMilestones.html.
    Sample Jim Crow laws: see https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/legal.html

    1867 -- Congress. Peonage, like indentured servant where a passage here is paid or room and board are exchanged by contract for service, but more virulent: debtor peonage , A form of bonded labor where a person who owes a debt is forced to work it off at harsh terms and the debt keeps increasing, often..   Congress outlaws peonage, where a person goes in debt and repays by labor, not able to get out from under.  The practice continued under various forms, however, see http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/peonage/.  For example, industrialists installed high cost company supply stores, for example, in the laborer community, and compelled the worker to use it for family expenses, the worker wenr into debt, had to work more to pay it off etc. see site.  Load Sixteen Tons.... white and black coalminers.  Or, induce an arrest for something minimal, pile on court costs, and the indebted person has to work it off.

    1868 -- China.  The Burlingame Treaty allowed only voluntary immigration of Chinese to the US.
     
    1868 -- Black Enlistment. A black woman, slave Cathay Williams, see bio at Wiki, dressed as a male and served as a Buffalo Soldier as William Cathay, Private, 38th Infantry.  Two relatives knew her secret, and were in the same regiment. She is remembered in poetry (a fan in 1999), see http://www.buffalosoldier.net/CathayWilliamsFemaleBuffaloSoldierWithDocuments.htm

    1869 ff -- Segregation.  Lawsto separate the races, responses, see http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/segregation.html 

    1870 -- Voting rights. 15th Amendment.   Black men allowed to vote. See https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/history/woman-suffrage-timeline#

    1871 -- Resistance to women's rights.  Anti-Suffrage Party is formed. Women's right to vote opposed. See http://www.ultimatehistoryproject.com/womens-anti-suffrage-movement.html 

    1871 -- Resistance itself is attacked. Ku Klux Klan diminishes under passage of the Congressional Klan Act, allowing arrests. See https://www.thoughtco.com/the-ku-klux-klan-history-721444. 

    1871 - AL.  Rescinds the legal right of a husband to beat his wife. See Domestic Violence Timeline.

    1873 -- Slavery.  Increasingly diminishing. Puerto Rico. Spain abolished slavery here. Earlier, in 1811, had abolished slavery in its colonies, but Cuba kept it up. In 1886, slavery abolished in Cuba. See chronology of abolition of slavery, various countries, http://www.reuters.com/article/uk-slavery-idUSL1561464920070322

    1876 -- Hayes-Tilden election. Reconstruction issues, vast disagreements.  See http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/segregation_pops/1876_election.htm.  Revisit electoral votes, popular votes, delays, issues, democrat lost. See 1877.

    1877 -- Failure of Reconstruction by resistance to change, as well as abuses. Pig Laws. Blacks were removed from political office where they had attained it; Pig Laws passed, creating harsh punishments for small matters, see http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/black-codes/. These stayed in effect, and many were rolled over into the Jim Crow era 18196 ff. See http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/jim-crow/

    1878 -- Woman Suffrage.  Amendment written by Susan B. Anthony is introduced.  Passes in 1920.

    1878 -- Immigration.  China. "Coolie Trade." See 1840's-1860's +.  Investigation  in Peru and Cuba abuses on sugar plantations, guano pits, other, labor selling selves to pay debts, even at auctions,  leads to treaties China-Peru-Cuba for reforms, see http://immigrants.harpweek.com/ChineseAmericans/2KeyIssues/CoolieLabor.htm

    1880's -- CA, Hawaii: Without slavery, needed sources of bound labor. These were imported  from China. See Gettysburg edu, Decline in Indentured Servitude
    • Hawaii:  'True indentures' with contract terms of duration to a specific planter
    • CA:  Indentures were by 'debt contracts' with hypothetical freedom when debt paid, but not clear if this mobility occurred often, see site. Some, however, were even paid wages and given passage back home at the end of the contract.
    1882 --CA. Got an assist from the federal government's Chinese Exclusion Acts, see http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/immigration/goldrush.html   Chinese gold-seekers were not necessarily poor, not did they all want to stay.  An idea fo rmany was go tet the gold, melt it into a less obvious form, and go home rich. No Chinese immigration for 10 years, and no Chinesse to become citizens (for how long?) See site.

    Korean immigrants still came in, however, see http://immigrationtous.net/176-korean-immigration.html 

    1882 -- MD. Makes wife-beating a crime. See Domestic Violence Timeline.   

    1882 -- NC.  Wife-beating is not a crime unless unless the battery results in permanent injury, endangers life, or is "malicious beyond all reasonable bounds." See Domestic Violence Timeline.

    1883 -- Supreme Court. Requirements for equal accommodations did not apply to private persons or corporations. See http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/jim-crow/ 

    1886 -- Farm workers. By tis time, 7 out of 8 were Chinese. See http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/  
    Over time, many blacks who remained were iin debt to the owner.

    1888 -- China.  Scott Act. A Chinese laborer who leaves the US cannot return.

    1892 -- Plessy v. Ferguson.  Homer Plessy sat in a whites only train car in New Orleans. Plessy:  black under Louisiana law, but only 1/8 black. See images. No apparent blackness, but the law was the law.See http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/stories_events_plessy.htmlUproar. Case wended up to Supreme Court where separate but equal was deemed sufficient to meet the equality standards, see http://www.pbs.org/tpt/slavery-by-another-name/themes/jim-crow/ 

    1895 -- Lern Moon Sing v. US.   No review of habeas corpus petitions of Chinese, a writ requiring proof for why the person is being detained, for arriving in the US. See Decision.

    Late 1800's --  England: Women's rights.  Reforms cited include prohibition against keeping wives locked up, a life-threatening beating can be grounds for divorce, and cannot sell daughters into prostitution. See Domestic Violence Timeline.
     
    1896 -- Jim Crow era.  See memorabilia, http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/what.htm/
    1898 -- Hawaii is annexed to the US, becomes a state in 1959.  Annexation terminated indentured servitude there. See Decline of Indentured Servitude 
    Now laborers of Japanese and Chinese descent could get better jobs, when Chinese were excluded, Koreans joined the Japanese. See http://immigrationtous.net/176-korean-immigration.html 

     1898 -- Woman Suffrage.  Elizabeth Cady Stanton's The Woman's Bible, published. See full text at http://www.sacred-texts.com/wmn/wb/.   Vet sacred-texts. See http://www.sacred-texts.com/about.htm  The claim of no agenda except religious tolerance is disingenuous.  Author comments as to Elizabeth Cady Stanton are snide (she is "entertaining"). Note the "Paganism" category -- non-theist, or multi-theist would be more apt, not so rankist as the inferior "pagan". Even the illustrations are fantasy white lady gorgeous gauzy, the Columbia movie lady. Alternate texts: Gutenberg. Stanton: a milestone in autonomy. Talk down to her at your peril. Is that so?

    1900 -- Conflicts in World Wars and Depression: Reformation of servitude required.

    1900-1960's -- Domestic Violence, Women's rights.
    Buffalo sets up first family court, attempting to resolve issues through discussion, conciliation, social service intervention
    NY transfers domestic violence cases out of criminal court (with assault a criminal matter if against a stranger) to civil court where penalties are never so great (no incarceration); beatings can be grounds for divorce but only if enough of them have happened;

    1905 -- Ku Klux Klan -- symbol of burning cross, invention through novel by Thomas Dixon, Jr, The Clansman.  Klan takes on new life.

    1906-07 -- US Attorney General prohibits naturalization of Japanese. President Roosevelt prevents immigration of "Japanese and Koreans through Canada, Mexico, and Hawai'i:  US got Japan to agree to limit visas to Japanese and Korean laborers to come to US. See http://immigrationtous.net/176-korean-immigration.html. But wives could join husbands, so the race was on for arranged and mail-order marriages. See http://angryapihistory.tumblr.com/post/50016448077/anti-immigrant-anti-asian-laws
    1910-1930 -- Great Migration of blacks from south to north. See https://priceonomics.com/the-great-migration-the-african-american-exodus/

    By 1910, European foreign-born immigrants comprised 15% of the total population, see http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/ethnic_minorities_at_war_usa

    Ongoing segregation :  Follow timeline at PBS:  See http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/segregation.html  

    1910-1920 -- Ongoing Woman Suffrage activities. Follow timeline at https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/history/woman-suffrage-timeline#

    1914 -- WWI. In 1917, 18% of the total army was foreign-born. Multilingual issues. See http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/ethnic_minorities_at_war_usa

    1915 -- Ku Klux Klan -- see film, Birth of a Nation, buy D. W. Griffith -- national interest now in the Klan, see https://www.thoughtco.com/the-ku-klux-klan-history-721444 . Accusation and conviction of murder of little Mary Phagan by factory engimneer-superintendant Leo Frank, a Jew, but role of antisemitism seems paramount, see http://www.famous-trials.com/leo-frank.
    He was taken from his jail cell and lynched, see http://www.businessinsider.com/leo-frank-lynching-in-georgia-100-years-ago-changed-america-forever-2015-8 , consensus now -- innocent of the crime of killing Mary Phagan.

    1916 -- NY. US Army. Book (here a google book), The Passing of the Great Race, author-lawyer Madison Grant (1865-1937) complained of a“dark Mediterranean subspecies” undermining the “splendid fighting and moral qualities” ofAnglo-Saxon and Nordics “races” that had settled America; and against “the wretched, submerged populations of the Polish Ghettos” who could never become effective soldiers. For the soldiers, however, enlisting was a unifying experience in a new country, see http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/ethnic_minorities_at_war_usa

    1917 -- British: Banned transportation of debtors from India, see Gettysburg Edu Decline in Indentured Servitude Indentured servitude outlawed in US, see Gettysburg edu, Decline in Indentured Servitude

    1917 -- WWI.  US Espionage Act:  legal to spy on Germans and German-Americans here. Sedition Act of 1918 allowed restriction of liberties. Launched: nationwide surveillance, propaganda, social exclusion See http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/ethnic_minorities_at_war_usa.  Is is in WWI that Germans surnamed Limbach changed to Limbaugh, or was it WWII, or the 1930's? See  https://joyofequivocating.blogspot.com/2009/03/ein-feste-burgemeister-sunday-limbaugh.html

    1918 -- President Woodrow Wilson supports Woman Suffrage. Rationale: War measure. See https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/history/woman-suffrage-timeline#

    Naturalizatopm:  Congress fast-tracked citizenship for alien soldiers, and ultimately some 123,000 were so naturalized, see http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/ethnic_minorities_at_war_usa

    1920 -- Women's Suffrage. 19th Amendment is made law.  See http://tag.rutgers.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/suffrage-timeline.pdf

    Woman Suffrage 1890-1920. Our old print

    1921 --  Research view of the day.  Start with this work from before the Great Depression, The Workers in American History by James Oneal 1921 (herein Workers).
    • This era represents an economic upswing after WWI, renewed optimism.  Its account of how the working class fared so poorly (the role of the ruling classes in inflicting deprivations, barring rise of lower classes), is better for understanding the era than mere lists of statistics, neutral accounts of conditions that those classes endured.  
    • Sources with data are useful, however, such as Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607-1776 by Abbot Emerson Smith, ed. 2009 after earlier editions (scroll to p.3 for background, people sent, and why). See Part II Penal Transportation, It lacks empathy, however, and does not hit the gut. 
      • Whose ancestor arrived as an indentured servant, slave, and still got nowhere. Some, of course, thrived and accumulated. Test the theory overall from the 1920's. Those beaten down enough and long enough may well not recuperate. Does it hold true. Read again, at page 54 of Workers, above.
      • Dear DAR.  How many of your august soldiers in the Revolutionary War were indentured servants promised their freedom, farm workers, runaways, mixed mixes.
    1911  -- Woman Suffrage.  The National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS).   President: Mrs. Arthur Dodge, see her 1915  Case Against Votes for Women. Members: wealthy, prominent women, 'some' Catholic clergy, 'distillers and brewers', 'urban political machines', Southern congressmen, and 'corporate capitalists.' See https://www.nwhm.org/education-resources/history/woman-suffrage-timeline#   See also Reforming America: A Thematic Encyclopedia and Document Collection of the Progressive Era ed. Jeffrey A. Johnson 2017 at 28.
    1912 -- Woman Suffrage. The Bull Moose Party of Theodore Roosevelt supports. See overview at http://www.woodrowwilson.org/education/for-students/1916-election/the-peoples-experience-women

    1913 -- CA. Restricting immigrants.  Alien Land Law.  No can own. Criticized: see 1947 http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3652&context=californialawreview

    1916 -- WA. Restricting immigrants.  Prohibits Asian immigrants from sale or profit from fish, salmon, other food . See http://angryapihistory.tumblr.com/post/50016448077/anti-immigrant-anti-asian-laws

    1917 -- Asian and Pacific Islands: Asiatic Barred Zone. Prohibits immigration.  Repealed 1952.

    1921 -- WA.Restricting immigrants.  Anyone not eligible for citizenship cannot lease or own land. See http://angryapihistory.tumblr.com/post/50016448077/anti-immigrant-anti-asian-laws

    1922 --  Rights awarded. Women's rights to own citizenship. The Cable Act The Married Women's Independent Nationality Act.  Earlier, an American woman lost her citizenship if she married an alien, in the interest of marital harmony and the natural order?  That is now repealed, see http://nationalwomansparty.org/the-1922-cable-act-citizenship-and-identity-for-american-women/;
    and http://immigrationtounitedstates.org/397-cable-act-of-1922.html

    1929 -- Stock market Crash. The Great Depression ensues.


     1914-1918 -- Mexico.  Great increase in immigration, because WWI was deflecting immigration from Europe. See http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/  Owners got a guest-worker program started, but it only lasted until 1921 -- when the soldiers were back, and the virulenet Spanish flu epidemic 1918-1919 was over.

    1923 --  India.  US v. Bhagat Singh Thind. The defendant argued that he was Indian and that is Caucasian.  Not so, said the Court.  Indians are non-white Asians, thus subject to the anti-Asian laws. 
    See http://www.bhagatsinghthind.com/court.php

    1924 -- Children's rights.  League of Nations treaty, Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, see http://www.humanium.org/en/childrens-rights-history/ 

    Grounding: see http://www.humanium.org/en/childrens-rights-history/

    1925 -- Japan. Hidemitsu Toyota v. US.  Naturalization route to citizenship issue.  The Supreme Court of the US cancelled his earlier naturalizatioin because of reinterpretation of immigration law by which Japanese were excluded, see decision at http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/268/402.html  Is this the Toyota of Toyota?? If so, look what we lost.

     1930's -- Phillipines.  Many farm workers here, but they began to to organize, says this site, and so the owners took in more and more Medicanfarm workers. See http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/

    1930's -- Great Depression.  White farmers had to sell off  their farms and become migrant workers.  Deportation: of some 500,000 Mexicans, see http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/

    1933 -- Philippines. Filipinos barred from immigrating and deemed ineligible to be citizens. See http://angryapihistory.tumblr.com/post/50016448077/anti-immigrant-anti-asian-laws.
    In 1934, however, legislation passed making the Philippines a Commonwealth, and Filipinos (50 persons a year) could immigrate.  See site.

     1935-1967 -- MD.  Maryland expands law against marriages of blacks and whites, in effect since 1600's, now to include Malaysians. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2031743/pdf/pubhealthreporig01056-0085.pdf

    1938 -- Child labor.  Fair Labor Standards Act, see https://www.shrm.org/resourcesandtools/legal-and-compliance/employment-law/pages/fairlaborstandardsactof1938.aspx  here as revised 2011: see https://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/statutes/FairLaborStandAct.pdf . Defines 'oppressive child labor' site p.8, s.203(l)


    Labor laws:  excluded farm workers and domestics at first;  included in revisions 2011. See http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/

    1939 -- WWII in Europe.

    US enters World War II later, in 1941 after Pearl Harbor.  Naturalization is expedited for aliens serving in the armed forces, a precedent set in WWI. See http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/ethnic_minorities_at_war_usa

    1942 -- Japanese internment camps by executive order.  Persons of Japanese ancestry are removed from coastal areas and put into camps. See "relocation" euphemism at https://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/japanese-relocation  Upheld, Korematsu v. US.

    1942-1964 -- Mexico-US.  Bracero program -- Need for Mexican workers on farms, railroads. Program regulated wages, food, housing but had negligible enforcement, see 1964.   1943 -- temporary visas for workers from the Caribbean. See http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/

    1945 -- Immigration by marriage.  War Brides Act. Allowed numbers outside the usual quota system. See http://immigrationtous.net/312-war-brides-act-act-of-december-28-1945-1945.html
    Act was amended several times to include more nationalities, fiancees, and so on, see site. Resulted in huge immigration bubble.Also addressed in time marriage fraud issues, and mail order brides (see the separate measures re this over time, see site)

    1946 -- Luce-Cellar Act.  Let in 100 from India, and 100 Filipinos. See http://www.pbs.org/rootsinthesand/a_lucecellar.html, touted as "opening" the way.

    1948 -- CA.  Overturns its law forbidding interracial marriage, see http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_mar14.htm

    1948 -- Human rights. United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, recognizing motherhood and children as entitled to special care and assistance, see http://www.humanium.org/en/childrens-rights-history/  See text and commentary at http://www.humanium.org/en/convention/text/  See 1966.

    1950-1958 -- Korean Conflict.  Naturalization was expedited for aliens serving in the armed forces, a precedent set in WWI and continued in WWII. See http://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/ethnic_minorities_at_war_usa/  Koreans get refugee status and could immigrate, see http://immigrationtous.net/176-korean-immigration.html

    1951 -- FL.  Who kills NAACP director, Harry Tyson Moore, and his wife. Firebomb the house. See https://www.thoughtco.com/the-ku-klux-klan-history-721444. See no final attribution at http://www.pbs.org/harrymoore/harry/mbio.html

    1952 -- Repeal of Naturalization Act 1795 that limited citizenship to free whites. Truman. Enter the new Immigration and Nationality Act, the McCarran-Walter Act, that included a guest worker program see http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/; and was also designed to prevent the spread of communism here and keep out diseases etc. Deny enemies from WWII (Japan) and keep friends (China). National security and national interests. Truman hesitated, but signed.   See http://library.uwb.edu/Static/USimmigration/1952_immigration_and_nationality_act.html.

    1954 -- Mexico.  Operation Wetback, President Eisenhower (and others), to deport undocumented workers, see http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2015/11/11/455613993/it-came-up-in-the-debate-here-are-3-things-to-know-about-operation-wetback. This was not conflicting with the temporary worker program, Bracero, 1942-64, see http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/
    • The Wetback program was disputed, and abusive, see npr site above. FactCheck:  Hoover, Eisenhower and Truman programs only lasted a few months, see http://www.factcheck.org/2010/07/hoover-truman-ike-mass-deporters/
    1960's -- Korea.  Increase in Korean immigration, see http://immigrationtous.net/176-korean-immigration.html

    1952 -- CA.  Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta join in the organization of Filipino farm workers, see http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/
    This became the National Farm Workers Association, that became the United Farm Workers.

    1962 -- Immigration and Nationality Act, McCarran-Walter Act, codified and reorganized laws on immigration into 50 titles, see https://www.uscis.gov/laws/immigration-and-nationality-act. 
    For example, it allows admission to the US of temporary non-immigrant workers (called H-2A workers) for agricultural work, or services temporary or seasona. See section 218, says https://www.dol.gov/whd/ag/ag_h-2a.htm
    authorizes the lawful admission into the United States of temporary, nonimmigrant workers (H-2A workers) to perform agricultural labor or services of a temporary or seasonal nature.

    1963 -- AL. Who kills 4 girls in firebombing of 16th St. Baptist Church, Birmingham.  See http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/ct-obama-national-monuments-20170112-story.html.   Will the monument be Trumped?

    1964 -- Civil Rights Act - no discrimination, age, sex, national origin, color, religion. See https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~arihuang/academic/abg/slavery/legal.html

    1960's -- ME.  A shelter is set up for domestic abuse cases. See Domestic Abuse Timeline.

    MS -- Civil Rights.  Who killed civil rights activists James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner.  See  http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/slain-civil-rights-workers-found

    Fast forward through many slaps on wrists to 2005 -- Edgar Ray Killen sentenced to 60 years jail. See http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/slain-civil-rights-workers-found
    1965 -- Voting Rights Act

    1964 -- Farm workers. End of Bracero Act, lack of ability to enforce regulations of farm worker living conditions.  Tithe to owners? Workers were also to get back the 10% of their wages retained as incentive to stay, when they prepared to go back to Mexico.  Still waiting. See http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/

    1965 -- Immigration. Repeal of national origin quotas, see http://angryapihistory.tumblr.com/post/50016448077/anti-immigrant-anti-asian-law. Immigration and Nationality Act, the Hart-Celler Act, see http://cis.org/1965ImmigrationAct-MassImmigration

    1967 -- Supreme Court, case of Loving v. Virginia. Legalization of marriage between black and white. Mildred Jeter, black; and Richard Loving, white. Text of opinion: http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/loving.html   See history of miscegenation laws,  'mixing' of 'kinds', with timeline, and chart, at http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_mar14.htm.

    1960's-1970's -- Women's Libertarian Movement frames domestic violence, even in the privacy of a marital home, is a political matter. See Three Women who Inspired the Modern Libertarian Movement at https://fee.org/articles/3-women-who-inspired-the-modern-libertarian-movement.  Principals: See full biographies at site -- 1. Rose Wilder Lane (mother was Laura Ingalls, of Laura Ingalls Wilder, of the Little House book series); 2.  Isabel Paterson (attacks on collectivism, lauding markets, individualism), and  3. Ayn Rand (individualism and capitalism).  What they miss is the need for balance: sustenance at the low economic levels, so individuals can indeed focus on being all that they can be as a capitalist, in competition, or whatever else they seek.  Liberty, justice and sustenance for all. Is that so?

    1966 -- Human Rights.  United Nations expands on Declaration of Human Rights, with two declarations:  Later enforced in 1976

    1)  International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), see http://www.humanium.org/en/childrens-rights-history/references-on-child-rights/1966-international-covenant/civil-political-rights/  See summary  Concepts sound highly aspirational; is that why the 10-year delay in enforcement, it took that long for agreement?.
    • State to abstain from intervening in any human's liberty, specifically citizenship and protecting physical integrity (is sexual exploitation not ok now?)
    • Reconition of individual liberty: freedoms, speech, thought, from torture and slavery, right to vote, etc.
    2)  International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), see http://www.humanium.org/en/childrens-rights-history/references-on-child-rights/1966-international-covenant/social-cultural-rights/. See summary Again highly aspirational, but concepts include:
    • State to guarantee an adequate standard of living to every individual, and promote ongoing improvement of living conditions; 
    • Recognition of rights to health, education, work and social security (not the code of any state, apparently, but the concept) etc.
    1970's -- Blacks, Latin Americans.  Many had moved to industrial jobs, Latin Americans filled the field jobs, but up to 75% estimated to be undocumented, see http://nfwm.org/education-center/farm-worker-issues/timeline-of-agricultural-labor/ 

    1970's -- Women's rights.  See Timeline for this decade at Domestic Violence Timeline.
    Too much to incorporate here.

    1975 -  Pete Seeger, philosopher and singer, writes book, Animal Liberation; see Animal Rights Timeline, this one last updated 2014. See also http://www.lancerlibrary.org/uploads/8/7/7/0/8770112/animal_rights_timeline_abc-clio.pdf

    1976 -- Human Rights.  UN continues to expand and now enforce human rights convenants, see http://www.humanium.org/en/childrens-rights-history/references-on-child-rights/1966-international-covenant/ (scroll down)

    1980's -- Women's Rights. See Timeline for this decade,  Domestic Violence Timeline

    1983 -- October 2. Farm Animal Reform Movement, World Farm Animals Day launched. See Animal Rights Timeline.  Acceleration of compassion for abuse, whether animal or human.

    1989 -- Avon Products stops cosmetics testing on animals. See Animal Rights Timeline.  Activities to pressure Procter and Gamble to do the same. Results? See 2017.

    1990's -- Women's Rights. See Timeline for this decade, Domestic Violence Timeline

    1991 -- Animal Rights.  Live animals in car crash testing: 19,000 killed, last decade.  See http://www.nytimes.com/1991/09/28/us/19000-animals-killed-in-automotive-crash-tests.html.
    Much PR trouble on that. List: Dogs, rabbits, pigs, ferrets, rats and mice.  Does size matter?

    1993 -- Animal Rights.  Car crash testing.  General Motors stops using animals. See Animal

    1996 -- CA.  Children's rights. Battering parent can be removed from the home, visitation curtailed, see Domestic Violence Timeline.  See proceedings, text.

    1997 -- Animal Rights -- Theories, rationales, see https://www.animallaw.info/article/animal-rights-theory-and-utilitarianism-relative-normative-guidanceSee also Animals and Ethics, International Encyclopedia of Philosophyhttp://www.iep.utm.edu/anim-eth/

    2000 -- Mixed bag of reform, rejection, rebellion, retro-thinking. What next?

    2000 -- Alabama -- Last state to legalize marriage between black and white, see https://ballotpedia.org/Alabama_Interracial_Marriage,_Amendment_2_(2000)

    2001 --  NY.  Children's rights. Agency flexibility.  Children's Aid Society has moved from early goal of salvaging 'civic potential" of homeless children to the capacity to serve as 1st responder at 9/11 World Trade Center   Its Orphan Trains continued from 1853-1930, see http://www.childrensaidsociety.org/about/history

    2003 -- Animal rights gains credible conservative support. See Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals, and the Call to Mercy by Matthew Scully. Read it there as a google book, scroll down to the chapters and click. Review from NYT at http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/27/books/the-most-compassionate-conservative.html

    2004 -- MA.  Legalizes gay marriage. See Same Sex Marriage Timelinehttps://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2015/06/24/same-sex-marriage-timeline/29173703/

    2013 -- Women's rights. Female circumcision, so called, is prohibited by Congress except in cases of medical necessity, and religious belief or custom to play no role in the determination of crime, see. 18 US Code s.116 at https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/116.  see commentaries at http://www.equalitynow.org/sites/default/files/EN_FAQ_FGM_in_US.pdf;  and   http://www.newsweek.com/fgm-rates-have-doubled-us-2004-304773.  Political waxing and waning; legislation followed by flawed enforcement.  Once gone, gone. For life.


    2015 -- Alabama -- February  -- Same sex marriage goes into effect following January District Court opinion (federal),  but State Supreme Court blocks.  See https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2015/06/24/same-sex-marriage-timeline/29173703/  Site says that the State did not appeal from the District Court. What brought it to the State Supreme Court? Chief Justice Moore: directed Probate Courts to disregard lifting of ban, and case dragged on, many petitions filed, resolution -- see http://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/alabama-chief-justice-suspended-over-gay-marriage-stance-n657511 

    See listing of legal actions on gay marriage issue at http://www.religioustolerance.org/supreme-court-appeals-marriage-kentucky-michigan-ohio-tennessee-menu.htm 

    2015 -- Animal rights.  Not yet. Business booms, see http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Huntingdon_Life_Sciences.  British, but facilities in NJ.  Toxicity testing.  People are also being used. See http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/how-trump-is-changing-science-environment/

    2015 -- June 26. Adult rights. Gay marriage.  Supreme Court legalizes gay marriage, case of Obergefell v. Hodges, see text at https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/14-556.  Justice Kennedy wrote the majority opinion, there are four separate dissents (Scalia  sampling: intimacy and spirituality are not originalist freedoms, among other topics) Roberts, Thomas, Alito)
    2017 -- Alabama -- Integration/segregation. Gardendale, a white town, so far can secede from the larger school district. See http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/judge-lets-white-alabama-town-secede-school-district-despite-race-n752581 

    2017 -- Immigration. Trump at the helm. Storm coming. Retro-immigration policy.  Reinstatement of old fugitive slave laws, no sanctuary, round-ups, deportations from the 1800's.  See Trump timeline of failed attempts, at  http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/10/us/trump-travel-ban-timeline/
    Reinstatement of old Pig Laws, with drastic consequences imposed on small offenses for the purposes of population control, see above. See Black Codes and Pig Laws.

    * The Ladies Amusement, 1700's art of japanning. Scan from our newer copy.

    2017 -- March.  Working caste.  Middle class, research shows "a sea of despair among white working class americans"   Washington Post.

    2017 -- Animal rights. Complex issue, given the reliance on and billion-dollar market demands for ever-changing beauty and cleansing products by the culture. Revlon stopped animal testing 1990 (check on status), says Animal Rights Timeline. Companies still doing animal testing or not.

    2017 -- April -- Farm workers. Still need basic rights, is that so, including the right to change jobs.  Even for H-2A workers, https://www.dol.gov/whd/ag/ag_h-2a.htm, an employer brings them here, then they are tied to him, abuse or injustice or not, something between peonage and indenture, see vocabulary at outset here. They have to pay hiring agencies at home (no regulation) and arrive in debt already, and get underpaid all too often without recourse. What protections may or should evolve, despite owner opposition, see http://nfwm.org/category/legislation/

    Old attempts at slipping discrimination into a national security argument continues.
    http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/10/us/trump-travel-ban-timeline/


    ..............................................................................
    Conclusion so far:

    Do not let it be. Self-educate. Servitude, deprivation of autonomy white forms and black. Gender, workers, genders, animals -- yes, them, too.

    It is harder for blacks to pass, if they want to; but both began as indentured servants. Slavery evolved as the profitability of it exceeded that of the indentured servant who had a contract, after all, and ultimately could go free With, perhaps, a stipend. See http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/feature/indentured-servants-in-the-us/   Black servitude; find multiple timelines. See http://www.pbs.org/wnet/slavery/timeline/1619.htm.

    For blacks and whites, however, who could not rise out of poverty, and remain in the exploited class, the effects of long-term servitude without reward for achievement are deeply found in behaviors, attitudes, anger, and determination to stay above the group next below. Rank counts, at all ranks, for so many.